Louise 1“Hearing the drum. The first time I heard the drum, I was just overwhelmed with the drum beat; the drum beat just resonated inside. The first time I heard it was actually during a sad time, it was a funeral. And the drum was being played as part of the ceremony in the funeral service and I was just overwhelmed with the calmness and the peacefulness that I found when it was played. So I knew from that point on that I would one day have a drum and that I would learn to play the drum, because I knew from that first experience that the drum was for me."

[ This interview was conducted on October 8th, 2009 by Mount Allison students Brit  Bingham and Haruka Sakurai, with contributions from Dr. Marilyn Walker. The interviewee, Louise, lives in Sackville, New Brunswick and came to Mount Allison University to be interviewed in Dr. Walker's Arctic Ethnography class in the fall term of 2009. Louise is a Métis elder and a passionate drummer within her community.]

Haruka: " Métis" is a very broad term. Are you Métis from your mother's side or father's side?

Louise: I'm Métis from my mother's side.

Haruka: And she's Native?

Louise: My mother was not Native, no. The Native ancestry comes a few generations back. My mother herself was French Acadian.

Haruka: And your father, he is?

Louise: He's English.

Brit: In your family, was being Métis an emphasized point when you were growing up, or was it something that you later on discovered for yourself.

Louise: It's something that I discovered much later on. When I was growing up I was not aware that there was Aboriginal heritage in my background. And my experiences from growing up - if there had been Métis, if I had have known then, or if my parents had known then- it wouldn't have been shared because Aboriginal Peoples were discriminated against as others were in this country. So it's something that definitely would not have been shared, it would not have been talked about.

Brit: How old were you when you discovered it and how did the realization come about?

Louise: I was in my forties when I discovered it. It came through a friend, actually, whom I'd met several years before, and I'm sure you've met him, you've met Émile?

Brit: I have.

Louise: They know Émile. And unknown to me, from the first time we were acquainted with one another he had the inclination that I did have a Native background. He mentioned this to me sometime later and actually introduced me to Roland Surette (for whom a memorial bursary has been set up at the university here) and he did the genealogy research for me and discovered that I did, in fact, have Aboriginal background.

Marilyn: And you actually applied for it?

Louise: I did, after, Roland did the research, which is actually the first step in getting your membership. In order to obtain your Métis membership, you must prove that you do have the Aboriginal heritage. So once that was done, I applied through the Eastern Woodland Métis Nation in Nova Scotia for Aboriginal membership, and that process took probably two to three months. Because everything is registered in Ottawa, and when I get my card, my card states that I'm a member of the Eastern Woodland Métis Nation. There's a number given to you which is also a number given to the Canadian Métis Association. So you're affiliated with both.

Haruka: And now do you consider yourself to be Métis? Is that how you identify yourself?

Louise: Oh yes, most definitely. From day one I did. It's interesting because I hadn't done any genealogy research before that and I really didn't have an interest in doing any genealogy but once I started, I got that bug and it's the same with everyone that I've spoken to. Once you start and once you start digging and finding out one name, you want to find out the next generation and the next generation and it really becomes a passion and it did with me as well. So I anticipated that I was because along the line I got feedback from Roland: "Oh it looks good here and it looks good here, we found this name here" or whatever. I was anticipating that the answer was going to be "yes" in the end, and it was, so yes, immediately it gave me a connection.

Marilyn: Now do you know if your ancestry is Mi'kmaq or Maliseet?

Louise: I don't know that, I don't know that. 

Marilyn: And is there any way of finding out?

Louise: There may be. I can do further research which I haven't done to this point, but I can.

Brit: So you're a part of the Eastern Woodlands Métis Group, and we know that you're an elder in that group as well?

Louise: Yes, I am.

Brit: How does the process of becoming an elder occur?

Louise: That process occurs by being recognized by an elder in the community. It's a process of recognition that you've developed, and they feel that you would be good to represent the Métis community, to educate, to share your knowledge, to keep the Native and Métis cultures alive.

Brit: In what sort of things have you participated, in your role as an elder within the Métis community?

Louise: In that role? I have participated in ceremonies. I participated in the ceremony when Marilyn was inducted as an elder and an honorary member of the Eastern Woodland Métis Nation. This past summer Émile and I did a ceremony of the opening of a provincial park in Nova Scotia which was the first time that Métis had participated in such an activity so it was quite interesting. I've gone into the schools and spoken with children. And just, everyday. Just everyday, you know, spreading the word, sharing my knowledge, what I've learned about plants, what I've learned about animals, about the Native culture, just helping to revive it and ensure that it continues.

Haruka: Do you feel any closeness when you meet Métis people from other regions, other areas. The Métis are spread throughout Canada; how do you feel when you meet other people from these regions?

Louise: Sure I do. There is I guess a difference of following between the east and the west in the Métis. I haven't had a lot of exposure to Métis from the west, I've had more exposure to those from the east, and yes I do feel a connection, certainly I do, yes I feel it, I feel a oneness, yes.

Haruka: What do you think makes this oneness to connect all Métis?

Louise: I think it's the connection of knowing that my ancestors were of the first settlers of this land and that they learned and lived in harmony with the land.

Haruka: That's very nice .

Brit: As Haruka said, Métis is a very broad term and we actually had a discussion in class trying to define what makes someone Métis and by the end we were all confused. Do you ever find it's difficult to hold that identity or is it something that because you feel it, it's never really an issue?

Louise: No. I feel it. It's part of me. It is never an issue. I would feel it, live it, and be proud of my Métis heritage in any diverse group. And in any group at all.

Marilyn: I would like to ask you a question about your Acadian background. Now, do you speak French?

Louise: No I don't speak French, but French actually was my first language. My mother was French and I grew up in a home where my mother was French, my father was English, and my English grandmother lived with us. That being said, my English grandmother had a little influence on the language that was spoken in the home and after my mother hearing many, many times that I was going to be a confused little girl if I was having two languages spoken to me and being expected to converse in the two of them, she eventually stopped. She only kept it up, probably until the time I went to school. So I learned to speak French as a young child, and the first alphabet that I learned was in French but I since lost it. I had children in the French immersion programs so that gave me a little opportunity to practice although I didn't take the opportunity or have the opportunity to study it myself during that time.

So just a few years ago I enrolled in some French classes with NBCC and took a couple of terms with them and further the next year in Amherst but I really found that I wasn't using it. I found that it was an effort to try to use it. Every time I got in the car, I'd turn on the French tapes to try and keep it up because I wasn't using it everyday and it gave me an opportunity to converse in French with my daughter who lives in Calgary and who doesn't have much opportunity to use French. But then after some time, I just, I went back to the English for some reason it just evolved that way, so no, I am not fluent in French. I can understand more French than I can speak. Actually, I can understand written French best. Understanding verbal, someone else speaking, I find is what's difficult. I really have to listen hard.

Haruka: I am going to ask about the Métis community. You have a very nice stick; how often do you practice Métis rituals or ceremonies?

Louise: Oh, it varies. It could be once a month, or it probably averages once a month, because sometimes it's once a week for a few weeks and then I don't do anything officially for a month, but probably once a month or something.

Haruka: What do you do, usually?

Louise: Well, participating in the ceremonies, which I had mentioned earlier, and taking different roles in the ceremony: drumming, singing, chanting, speaking, offering tobacco as thanks, and performing the ceremonies to the different directions. So, different roles.

Haruka: So is that based on any particular belief of the Métis?

Louise: No. It's based on the culture itself.

Brit: How long have you been a drummer ?

Louise: I have been a drummer for oh, four years.

Brit: What got you interested in it?

Louise: Hearing the drum. The first time I heard the drum, I was just overwhelmed with the drum beat; the drum beat just resonated inside. The first time I heard it actually was during a sad time, it was a funeral. And the drum was being played as part of the ceremony in the funeral service and I was just overwhelmed with the calmness and the peacefulness that I found when the drum was played. So I knew from that point on that I would one day have a drum and that I would learn to play the drum, because I had experienced from that first experience that the drum was for me.

Brit: And is drumming a pretty integral part of Métis ritual?

Louise: Very much so, the drum is used as a tool, per say, to speak to all of Creation: trees, bird life, plant life, animals, all of those. It's one way that we can all communicate with one another.

Haruka: So when you decided to play the drum, you wanted to practice, or act as a Métis or do you just like the sound of the drum? Of course it may be both but…

Louise: I think it was more than the sound of the drum, I think it was the feeling of the drum. It was actually feeling that beat. That is what got me interested and that is what I wanted to feel. So when I first started to learn to play the drum, I learned actually different rhythms from around the world and different drum beats from different cultures and then decided that the Aboriginal frame drum is the one I wanted to concentrate on and then I did. And I could sit down, when I was first learning it, I mean I still can, I'd pick up the drum and I'd sit in the middle of my living room floor and I would play it for an hour and it was like ten minutes had gone by. It's very calming, very peaceful. It really grounds you in the moment.

Brit: I was actually going to ask about your really nice Métis sash?

Louise: This is a traditional Métis sash and the first Métis sash was made in L'Assomption, Quebec and it was actually called a L'Assomption sash. That sash included the colour black. There used to be six colours in the Métis sash, there are now five. They've dropped black. The black was a sign of repression and depression and I guess, something of the past, so they've dropped the black. But the colours that have remained are red, green, yellow, white and blue. Each of the colours in the sash has significance. The red is the colour of our blood as well as the colour of the heart of the Métis. The green is the symbol of forest, plant growth, renewal, regeneration. Yellow is the colour of the sun, and blue represents the colour of the background in the Métis flag for one thing but also the water, the sky. The white represents the colour of light, the spirits, spirituality, and it is also the colour of the Métis symbol on our flag. It's finger woven. They have different patterns.

This one was given to me when I became an elder. And I'm really not sure if this one was made by anyone in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick or anywhere nearby. There are many uses of the sash. Over the years, I mean the men normally wear them around their waist, tie them around their waist and the ends of their sash would hang in front. Women usually wear them over their shoulder, sometimes they tie them, and sometimes they clip them. I have a whale on mine because a whale came to me in a vision one time, and I feel that it is one of my spirit guides, so I have the whale on mine. It was used as a medicine bag, it was used for a towel, for a facecloth; the Métis sash is used for many different things.

Brit: And your stick as well, we saw Marilyn 's and it was a talking stick, is that what you have?

Louise: That's what this is. This is a talking stick and Émile made this for me and he gave this to me about a year ago with the eagle, carved on the top of it and the wolf on the side. Attached on it is my eagle feather that I received when I became an elder. I have a couple of pouches on here that I carry with it. This is a pouch that Marilyn gave me that I carry a medicine stone in, it's rose quartz. And the colours on this might look a little different than when Marilyn gave it to me. They're all of significance, they're all Métis colours. This was from a necklace of my son's, my youngest son, and he passed away a few years ago, so this is from him, something from him, to have his spirit with me. All the others are Métis, actually there are a few others that are from my son's necklace as well. This is my tobacco pouch, which I carry my sacred tobacco in.

Brit: And does the eagle on the top signify anything or symbolize anything?

Louise: Yes. The eagle is very, very special to the Native culture, to Aboriginals, very sacred. It's the animal who flies between the earth and the spirit world, taking messages, and very, very special.

Haruka: And the wolf?

Louise: Yes, this is an eagle and this is a wolf. Just a spirit animal to some. That's just something that Émile saw in it when he carved it. And when he carves something he starts and he can generally see something in it and that's what he works towards. So that's what he saw in it, was the eagle and the wolf.

Brit: You also have a wolf on the necklace that you're wearing as well?

Louise: I do. This was given to me when I became an elder as well. It signifies being an elder and it's of the Eastern Woodland Métis nation. It has the Métis symbol at the top.

Haruka: So what do you think are important tasks as a Métis elder?

Louise: As an elder? To educate. To share my knowledge. Which all of us are meant to do, to share our knowledge with others. But as an elder I am expected to share my knowledge, and like I mentioned before, to keep the Native culture and ways of life revived so that it isn't lost.

Haruka: To share your knowledge within your Métis community?

Louise: No, to everyone. To everyone, whether it's going into the schools, whether it's talking to you, one of my co-workers, my children, or my grandchildren. Passing it on through generations.

Marilyn: Do you want to mention your children and which ones have followed up on their Métis heritage? And how that took place?

Louise 3Louise: Yes. Actually just before I had sent in my membership information we had discovered that we had Métis heritage and my youngest son was the only one who was living at home at the time, so I'd gotten him to sign his card, getting all ready, you know, getting all the documents together - the pictures that you need to send and supporting documents. And between the time when he signed it and I sent it away was when he passed away.

So shortly after he passed away, I sent in memberships for both of my sons, since he had already signed his and was really proud to have learned that he was Métis. I did that right away, for both of my sons and myself.

We received our memberships shortly after that. My daughter, living in the western provinces decided that she would look into joining a Métis organization in the western provinces and she determined that it wasn't that easy. Where she came from the east and her ancestors came from the east, in order to join a group in the west she would have had to have proven that she was a follower of Louis Riel, which would have been a lot of work and she may not have been able to do that. So since, actually just this summer, she decided that she would speak with the Métis Association of Canada, and that is what she has followed up on. She sent all her supporting documents to them and she is waiting any day to get her membership.

Brit: So getting your Métis status recognized is not the same process all throughout Canada, it's different?

Louise: Throughout Canada it isn't, anyone can apply to the Canadian Métis Association but there are groups throughout and in different provinces. For instance, the Eastern Woodland Métis Nation is one group. So I decided that since the people that helped me determine my heritage belonged to that group, I wanted to be a member and join that group. So I am a member in good standing of that group, as well as a member of the Canadian Métis Association.

Haruka: Do you think you have any advantage because of being Métis?

Louise: Do I have any advantages? The advantage I have, that I didn't have before I knew, was that I now know. I know. I know who my ancestors were so I have that connection. I know that I am a part of a large community. That there are many people of mixed blood, of mixed traditions, cultures, and beliefs. And the advantage now is knowing that.

Haruka: Do you also have disadvantages?

Louise: Disadvantages? No. No disadvantages. No. Only advantages.

Brit: Are there any particular changes you've noticed within different generations of Métis people, or in regards to being Métis or understanding, or is it very similar throughout?

Louise: What I notice is today, Métis people are more apt to participate in events and call themselves Métis, to identify with the Métis. That wasn't done. And, it's really interesting that you should ask that question because a friend of mine, which I don't know if you've met, have they met Blair yet?

Marilyn: Some of them, the students in the other class have, the ones in Ethnobotany.

Louise: Well Blair was just mentioning on the weekend that when he became interested in studying medicinal plants and their uses and whatnot, he'd been in the forest and collected a bunch of wildflowers. He thought "Oh well I'll take these home to my mother", and he took them home to his mother. As soon as he gave them to his mother, she said "Oh you brought me -", and then she started naming everything that he had brought and what it was used for. He was like "Mom! You knew, you know what all these plants are? But, you've never told anyone!" So that really resonated with me: that our past generations didn't share that knowledge, they kept that knowledge within. Now, it was probably for different reasons. You know, one reason being maybe they just didn't feel that it was that important to share, maybe that it was something people would find out anyway. But I'm sure one of the reasons was that by sharing that, someone may ask how you gained that knowledge, and you would have to share that you had an Aboriginal background.

Brit: Do you think that there are any particular issues or challenges that face the Métis community today?

Louise: Yes. We all have to - and I'm talking about all Métis people as well as non-Métis people - really need to work on carrying the culture, and helping people recognize the significance of the Métis of the past in building our country and their roles in medicine. I mean, the Native people knew, they lived off the land. They didn't have drugstores to go to get their medicines. They lived off the land, they learned which plant helped with whatever ailment, and our society today has become so reliant on pharmaceuticals and big drug companies, really relying on chemical drugs to treat the basis of ailments that we have. A lot of us have developed cancer. And we're now recognizing that in many cases it's because of the exposure to all the chemicals. So I think one of the challenges is working towards getting that word out there, that there needs to be more research done on using natural plants as remedies.

Brit: So you have a bit of experience in the area of natural plants as well? As well as identifying their uses?

Louise: I'm really learning right now, that's really one of my goals, to become more proficient in recognizing medicinal plants and their uses.

Haruka: You say people today aim to share their knowledge with other people, yet at the same time they rely on chemical medicine. So do you think that the amount of knowledge is decreasing?

Louise: The amount of knowledge? Oh it certainly is. It certainly is.

Haruka: In what kind of a situation do you re-realize "Oh I am a Métis"? You are Métis, but you are not always thinking, "I am Métis, I am Métis, I am Métis". I'm Japanese but when I'm taking a shower or studying, I don't think "I am Japanese". In what kind of a situation or when do you feel that you are a Métis?

Louise: Definitely when I participate in any type of event that is related to Native spirituality. But yes, sometimes I'm in the shower and I'm thinking of something that I wanted to do last night and now I have to do it this morning, right? But you know, I'm not thinking "Oh I'm Métis, I'm Métis, what do I need to do today to share some knowledge." No, it isn't that way at all, but I know that and I feel it inside. It's inside.

Marilyn: So who would like to ask Louise  a question? We'll spend a few minutes doing this before coming back to you two.

Student: I was wondering if you could tell us a bit more about the Métis symbol?

Louise: Well it looks like an eight really, on it's side and it's an infinity symbol. And it represents the mixed culture and that we will go on forever.

Student: There are incidences where elders do practice traditional medicine. Have there been incidences where younger people were interested in medicine and could pass on information? And if so, do they still want to give the knowledge to the people?

Louise: Oh no they want to pass it on because they want future generations to know.

Student: Is it only shared among the Métis people or is it documented for outsiders to use?

Louise: Yes, but you would be accepted as one who should receive this knowledge. Yeah, that's my understanding of it.

Student: I remember, I think the Métis symbol is on your drum? Because I remember we talked a lot about your drumming and this symbol, and I was wondering what else was on your drum and what significance they have to you?

Louise: Okay. Let me show you my drum. Émile made this drum and the tobacco pouch is from Blair. So there's a little bit of a lot of people in this drum. What is on my drum is, if you look at the scene, it's an abstract scene but it is actually the scene if you were to stand in my son's bedroom and look out towards Silver Lake. I live out by Silver Lake, this is the scene of the lake and the rolling hills around the lake. This is the symbol of the sunset and sunrise and the artist who did this for me came to my house and looked into the bedroom and he looked at it for himself and there happened to be a beautiful sunset that evening, it was in the winter right around 5, 5:30, something like that, and the sun was setting and it was the most beautiful sunset. So he said "I have to incorporate that sunset in the drum." So this is how he did it, he did the sunset and the sunrise.

The eagle, very symbolic to native culture, I had to have an eagle there. But one of the reasons why I had to have an eagle there was because the day my son passed away, Émile drove over to my house to help talk about the ceremony he would do at the funeral, and he saw two eagles, right at the border. So we knew there had to be an eagle on there. And I wanted to incorporate a memory of my son in the drum, so I asked him to put a "G" somewhere in the eagle, so I'm sure you all can see the "G". His name was Gil, so, the first letter of his name.

And loons return to Silver Lake every year since I've lived there, fifteen years. In the spring when I hear that first loon sound, it's my signal that spring has arrived. I love the loons, I love to sit on my deck and listen to the loons. So I told him that somehow we had to incorporate the loons, so it was his idea that we would make the mirror image of the eagle to be a loon. So that's how we ended up with the loon.

The symbol here, here and here, in the four directions and all along the side is the shaman's eye symbol. That's a symbol of Émile. Since he had made the drum for me, we wanted to have something on it that was of special significance. If you look closely at the drum, you will see animals, in the patina of the drum, you will see animals that the artist, Bruce Hébert, has brought out, and right in the centre, there's an owl. I'm sure you can't see it at the back of the room but you can come up and have a look at it if you like in a few minutes. There's a wolf, and there's a rabbit, and there are different animals throughout that you can have a look at and see if you can find them.

The back of it is very intricately woven into the four directions. There is a significance in the centre too, cords in each direction, that's the connection to the spirit world. That's my drum. Very special. This is my second drum, my first drum I sent to my daughter in Calgary, after I acquired this one. And she's using my first one out there to drum with her daughter and son. She goes into their schools and their classrooms and does drumming with the children. They've actually made drums out of margarine containers and used pencils for drumsticks and whatnot. You just use whatever you have. So, that's my drum.

Student: What kind of skin did you use on the drum?

Louise: That's deer.

Student: Do you have any interest in making drums yourself?

Louise: Yes I do, I am going to make myself a drum.

Student: I was wondering about what you talked about that was on your talking stick, and the pouch that Marilyn gave you, that there was a medicine stone in it? Of quartz? And I was wondering what you would use a medicine stone for…what would you apply it to?

Louise: It's a rose quartz. Different stones have different properties and different ways of healing I guess. I have actually forgotten right now what the rose quartz is, but Marilyn might remember, Marilyn do you remember the rose quartz?

Marilyn: I do. Rose quartz is a very calming stone. It's a calming and quieting stone. So it's actually used in medicine for treating anxiety or hyperactivity or something like that. And it represents love.

Louise: And I actually have another necklace that was given to me by a Métis friend just a few months after my son passed away. I went to an Aboriginal ceremony down in south-western Nova Scotia with the Eastern Woodland Métis and I got this then. It contains turquoise, and the turquoise stone takes the negativity out of the body and works on the heart chakra, so that you can give and receive. So they gave that to me to help me through the next little while. That was very special.

Brit: Are the other stones on that necklace also symbolic or representative of anything or…?

Louise: The others aren't really stones, they're colours. The only stone on there is really the turquoise. There are some light stones which resemble the colour of the rose quartz but it isn't true rose quartz. And this isn't amethyst, it's an amethyst colour, but it isn't true amethyst. And this other necklace was made by Émile, with the bear claw on it.

Marilyn: Were you there that day we saw the bear coming out of Pugwash?

Louise: No, I missed that. No, I still want to see a bear because a bear is one of my power animals and I would really like to look one in the face. No, but I saw the two bald eagles sitting in the osprey nest, and the four deer.

Student: When we were in Pugwash, we were talking to Blair about sweat lodges and he mentioned that you had participated in them and I was wondering if you could tell us about that?

Louise: Yes, and that's actually something I should have mentioned when they asked me what I did in the Aboriginal community. Yes, I help do the sweat lodges and vision quests. And at the Pugwash site, that's where we do them. I've done two.

Brit: What exactly is a vision quest?

Louise: A vision quest is a time that one can go out into nature, be at oneness with nature, not have any distractions. There aren't a lot of people that are lucky enough to experience it because you really slow down. You don't have thoughts racing through your head. If there's something you need to think about, a decision that you have to make, you're at a fork in your life and you're just not sure which way to go, it requires some thinking. It's an opportunity to go out into the wilderness, to sit by yourself, to just observe. The first half of it, we usually just observe. Observe everything around us, notice the little things that we normally might not notice; a spider spinning a web, or the moss under our feet. But just being and the stillness in nature and observing and then the latter half of the vision quest, think about what you might like to do with the rest of your life, what you might like to do in the next month. The next year, your plans. That sort of thing. Help make decisions. You might receive messages, you might receive a vision, that's why it's called a vision quest. You often will have a vision. You won't always have a vision. I have in the ones that I've gone on; I've had visions on them. And it's then, with the help of the elders that you can figure out what the message was in that vision. They give you some guidance that way.

Student: What do you need to do to prepare for a vision quest, are there special foods or drinks that you consume or offer, or do you burn tobacco?

Louise: Normally we fast for 24 hours before and during the day of the vision quest, and then we have a feast at the end and it's just fabulous, everything tastes so good. But leading up to it, 24 hours and 48 hours before, you wouldn't consume anything, you wouldn't consume alcohol or caffeine or any altering substances because you want your mind to be clear. We drink water, we drink water. We take water and we take one orange cut up into segments, that's what we ration out to ourselves during the day.

Student: I know in some cases it's hard to trace Native ancestry, and in your case if none had been found, do you feel that you would have identified with the Métis anyway?

Louise: I had already identified with the community because Émile and I had become good friends, and I had a keen interest. I've always had a keen interest in the outdoors. When I was a child, you know, I was the oldest of three, three sisters, three girls and I was the one in the family that always seemed to tag along with my father when he went in the woods. I always wanted to be outside, doing something in nature. So I guess I've always had that yearning. Now knowing that I have Aboriginal background has just kind of sealed that for me. I guess you just know. It's kind of hard to explain, you realize who you are, everything starts to make sense - your thoughts, what you've done, your actions - when you start learning more about Native spirituality and the culture. And the way of life.

Student: You mentioned that your children have applied for Métis status and they've discovered their heritage, but have your sisters?

Louise: No, neither one of my sisters has. One at this point is not interested in pursuing that, and those are her reasons. We all have different beliefs and hers is not interested in pursuing that at this time. My other sister I know will. She's interested in doing a sweat lodge and a vision quest and I know that she will do that as well.

Marilyn: Now we come back to you two to see if you have any final questions you wanted to ask Louise.

Haruka: I think I have asked everything I wanted to.

Brit: I can't think of anything right now, I'm sure I will later on, but not for now.

Marilyn: Okay. Louise do you have any questions for the students?

Louise: Actually I made a few notes myself and I'm just having a quick look here to see if there was something that I wanted to mention but didn't. No.

Marilyn: So I'm going to ask you something. Because we still have a few minutes left, would you be willing to sing the eagle song?

Louise: Do you want to see what my drum sounds like? I heated it up a little bit. But in this weather, skin drums are very flat. But you let me try it and I heated it up before I left but we'll see. This is a song recorded by the Augustines that I'll sing for you:

"The sign of an eagle
Is a sign of might 
To the Indian People
it's a sign of rights.
wo-oh, wo-ho

way hi-ya way hi-ya way"