Contemporary Canadian Government & Politics:
A Practical Research Guide

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6. Special Topics
Introduction Aboriginal Peoples Federalism / Constitutional Issues Environmental Policy Government & Party Finance
Immigration Policy International Relations Provincial / Local Government & Politics Women in Politics

Immigration Policy: Clarification and Direction: Finding the Facts

Immigration — Introduction Immigration — Bibliographies Immigration — Finding & Evaluating Immigration — Primary Sources

The following are sources that are specific to immigration policy and related issues in contemporary Canadian government and politics. These sources should be consulted in addition to those listed in the main sections of this guide.

Back to the Top Facts & Figures Overview & Background Information
Definitions
Citizenship and Immigration Canada Glossary of Terms. From: The Monitor, CIC's online newsletter. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/monitor/glossary.asp
The official CIC definitions of about thirty of the most frequently used terms for immigrant types, programs, etc.
Immigration and Citizenship Glossary. Terminology Bulletin 245. Rev. and expanded ed. By Janeen Johnston-DesRochers, Claudine Landart & Rémi Nadeau. Ottawa, ON: Translation Bureau, Government of Canada, 2000.
Contains 8,000 entries on immigration- and citizenship-related terms used in legal texts, specialized documents and the press consistent with those used by Citizenship and Immigration Canada, the Immigration and Refugee Board and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Immigration and Refugee Protection Vocabulary. Terminology Bulletin 258. By Mario Drolet. Ottawa, ON: Translation Bureau, Government of Canada, 2004. 389 p. http://www.translationbureau.gc.ca/index.php?lang=english&cont=776
This is a collection of about 850 terms with definitions and/or examples of use from the 2001 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and the 2002 Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations.
IRB Glossary. (English-French) 2004 Revised and Expanded Ed. Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/about/publications/glossary/index_e.htm
This official IRB glossary provides the English/French equivalents of terms used; no definitions.
Talking About Refugees and Immigrants. Canadian Council for Refugees. http://www.ccrweb.ca/glossary.htm
A very brief, but helpful glossary providing definitions and context for terms used widely (and sometimes incorrectly) for refugees and immigrants.
Back to the Top Definitions Overview & Background Information
Facts & Figures
Dates People Statistics
General:
About Citizenship and Immigration Canada. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/index.asp
The "About Us" section of the official web site of the federal department responsible for immigration provides information about the department, a brief introduction to Canada's immigration system, services for newcomers, laws, policies and program manuals, and information for applicants. The "About Citizenship" section provides information on the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. The site also includes news releases, research and key publications such as: "You Asked About... Immigration and Citizenship", a detailed guide to CIC's programs and services, "A Look at Canada" the study guide created for people applying for Canadian citizenship, as well as several years of annual plans, reports and statistics.
Canadian Offices Abroad. Foreign Affairs & International Trade Canada. http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/world/embassies/menu-en.asp
This site provides links to the web sites of Canadian Embassies, Consulates and High Commissions in other countries, which each have a "Visas and Immigration" section with detailed country-specific information for potential immigrants on application procedures, requirements, forms, etc.
History of Immigration Departments, 1867 to Date. Library of Parliament. http://www2.parl.gc.ca/Parlinfo/Legacy/pages/DepHist.asp?language=E&Dept=C&SubDept=All&Key=5
Note the entries in red to trace the development of the federal departments responsible for Immigration. (Return to main index to select Multiculturalism to see the departments responsible for Multiculturalism highlighted.)
Multiculturalism. Canadian Heritage. http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/progs/multi/index_e.cfm
The Multiculturalism web page has basic information on what multiculturalism is and means to Canada, related legislation, programs and resources.
The Peopling of Canada: 1946-1976. Applied History Research Group, University of Calgary. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/canada1946/
An online tutorial examining Canada's immigration policies and events for this thirty year period. The site contains book-like chapters on major themes with many pictures, statistics, and information on topics such as the "ideal immigrants", the Citizenship Act and Immigration Act, displaced persons, assisted-passage loans, government Green and White Papers, etc.
General People Statistics
Dates:
A Hundred Years of Immigration to Canada, 1900-1999: A Chronology Focusing on Refugees and Discrimination. By Janet Dench. Canadian Council for Refugees. http://www.ccrweb.ca//history.html
Milestones of the 20th Century. Ottaw: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2000. 20 p. Electronic copy archived at Library and Archives Canada: http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/cic/milestones_20th_century-e/ci51-92_2000-e.pdf
This chronology of major events, including many political, covers the 1960's to the present.
Multiculturalism Canada Policy and Legislative Framework. http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/policy/framework_e.cfm
A chronological listing of post-WWII developments in Canada's multiculturalism policy.
General Dates Statistics
People:
Directory of Canadian Representatives Abroad. By Foreign Affairs & International Trade Canada. http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/world/embassies/cra-en.asp
Use this directory to contact individuals at diplomatic or consular missions outside of Canada. The directory is searchable by country or region, city or surname. Information provided: address, email, phone, fax and names of the Higher Commissioner and other top personnel including those who deal specifically with immigration issues.
History of Departments, 1867 to Date. Library of Parliament. Citizenship and Immigration and Multiculturalism and Citizenship.
Traces the changes in departmental responsibility for Immigration and Multiculturalism, listing the Ministers responsible with their terms of office.
Provincial Ministers Responsible for Multiculturalism. Canadian Heritage. http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/ministers_e.cfm
Links to the contact information (mail and email address, phone and fax numbers) for each of the current provincial and territorial Ministers responsible for Multiculturalism.
See also the Note on Major Biographies in Part 2: Facts & Figures of this guide.

General Dates People

Statistics:
Citizenship and Immigration Canada Annual Statistics:
The department name and report titles changed over the years, but these are the official immigration statistics collected by the department. With slight variations, they include characteristics of landed immigrants and temporary residents for that year: port of entry, class of immigrant, country of birth and last residence, age, gender, language, level of education, year of landing, intended occupation, city of destination, etc. Some also include historical tables.
The Monitor. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Quarterly. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/monitor/index.asp
CIC's online newsletter providing statistics updated quarterly on new immigrants and citizens, foreign workers and foreign students. Each issue includes an in-depth analysis of one of the main immigrant types (permanent resident, foreign workers, etc.)
MPI Data Hub: Migration Facts, Stats, and Maps. Migration Policy Institute. http://www.migrationinformation.org/datahub/comparative.cfm
This non-profit group provides migration statistics from around the world allowing you to compare Canada's annual immigration statistics with those of other countries. Statistics include: acquisition of citizenship, asylum applications, inflow of foreign-born population by age, sex and country, and as a percentage of the total population.
Statistics Canada's Statistics by Subject: Ethnic Diversity and Immigration. http://cansim2.statcan.ca/cgi-win/cnsmcgi.pgm?Lang=E&SP_Action=Theme&SP_ID=30000
This page brings together all of Statistics Canada's immigration-related statistics on the web site: Census tables, analytical studies, news releases, special surveys, etc.
Provincial and territorial immigration statistics:
Most of the above statistical sources provide a breakdown by province/territory. Some provinces also compile immigration statistics for their provinces using data from these sources as well as from their own nominee programs, where applicable. For example: Manitoba Immigration Facts: Annual Statistical Reports. 2000 - . http://www.gov.mb.ca/labour/immigrate/resources/publications.html, or see BC STATS - Migration and Immigration

TIP: Search your library's catalogue using the keywords in the subject field: statistics and immigration and [the name of the province] to find these in print.

Finding Aids:

"Immigration" Section, Finding Canadian Statistics. By Laine Ruus. Data Library Services, University of Toronto. http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/datalib/other/findcans.htm#immig

Data Sources on Immigrant Women. By Marcia Almey, Statistics Canada. Ottawa: Status of Women Canada, [1998]. 37 p. http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/SW21-70-1998E.pdf

This guide summarizes the Census and other large, ongoing Statistics Canada surveys that identify immigrants as a significant sample group. Provides contact information for more information on each survey.
NOTE: Data from these surveys may be available to university researchers through the Data Liberation Initiative. Contact your data librarian for access.
Back to the Top Definitions Facts & Figures
Overview & Background Information

Forging Our Legacy: Canadian Citizenship and Immigration, 1900-1977. By Valerie Knowles. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/legacy/index.asp. Commissioned by Citizenship and Immigration Canada, this brief survey history includes information on policy changes over that time.

Good overview articles:
"Immigration and Refugee Policy in Canada: Past, Present, and Future" by Usha George. In Canadian Social Policy Isses and Perspectives. 3rd ed., Ed. by Anne Westhues, Waterloo, ON: Wifrid Laurier Press, 2006 p. 145-163.

State of Refugees in Canada. by Canadian Council for Refugees. 2003? http://www.ccrweb.ca/state.html. Describes the refugee system, current and historical issues and the role of NGOs.

"Provincial Multiculturalism Policies in Canada, 1974-2004: A Content Analysis". By Joseph Garcea. In Canadian Ethnic Studies, vol.38, no.3, 2006 p. 1-20. This article examines the origins, evolution, content, and value of provincial multiculturalism policies over the three decades.

Annual Reviews Textbooks Parliamentary and Legislative Research Papers
Encyclopedias:
Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. Ed. by Paul Robert Magocsi. Toronto: U. of Toronto Press, 1999. 1334 p. http://www.multiculturalcanada.ca/mcc/index.htm
This encyclopedia produced by the Multicultural History Society of Ontario and digitized on the Multicultural Canada Project site, has a brief overview of Immigration Policy by Robert Perin and Harold Troper. The rest of the encyclopedia covers ethnic histories.
Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Ed. by John Powell. Facts on File, Inc., 2005. 464 p.
Over 300 hundred articles in this work cover the historical context of immigration in North America (excluding Mexico and Central America) over the past 500 years. Articles are in alphabetical order by subject but there is also a detailed subject/name index in the back. Each article includes a bibliography of further readings on the topic (mostly English, some French). Statistics on ethnic groups in Canada are based on the 2001 Census.
Encyclopedias Textbooks Parliamentary and Legislative Research Papers
Annual Reviews:

Annual Status Reports. Canadian Council for Refugees. http://www.ccrweb.ca/eng/issues/library.htm

These reports examine how the federal government has addressed refugee and immigration issues each year, with a list of the good and bad developments.
Encyclopedias Annual Reviews Parliamentary and Legislative Research Papers
Textbooks (Selected Titles):
Canada and Immigration: Public Policy and Public Concern. By Freda Hawkins. 2nd ed. Kingston, ON: McGill-Queens University Press, 1988. 387 p.
Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. By Ninette Kelley and Michael Trebilcock. Toronto: U. of Toronto Press, 1998. 621 p.
A thorough history with a large bibliography of sources. Chapters 8-10 cover the post-war period.
Multiculturalism and Immigration in Canada: An Introductory Reader. Ed. by Elspeth Cameron. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, 2004. 450 p.
Strangers at Our Gates: Canadian Immigration and Immigration Policy, 1540-2007. By Valerie Knowles. Rev. ed. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2007. 312 p.
Not an academic text, but a good introductory survey.
Encyclopedias Annual Reviews Textbooks
Parliamentary and Legislative Research Papers:
Canada's Immigration Program. By Benjamin Dolin and Margaret Young. Background Paper BP-190E. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Research and Information Service, Rev. Oct. 2004. 54 p. http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/bp190-e.htm
An excellent explanation of the goals and contentious issues of contemporary Canadian immigration policy.
Canadian Multiculturalism. By Michael Dewing and Marc Leman. Current Issue Review 93-6E. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Research and Information Service, Rev. March 2006. 23 p. http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/936-e.htm
An excellent overview covering background and analysis of the main issues, parliamentary action, chronology and selected references.
Gender-related Refugee Claims. By Margaret Young. Background Paper BP-370E. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Research Branch, 1994. 20 p.
Humanitarian Immigration and Canadian Immigration Policy. By Grant Purves. Current Issue Review 80-10E. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Research Branch, Rev. May 1993. 15 p.
Immigration: The Canada-Quebec Accord. By Margaret Young. BP-252E. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Information and Research Service, Rev. May 2004. 7 p. http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/bp252-e.htm
Describes the main features of the Accord and its administration.
Immigration to Canada: What Policy for What Purposes?. By Philippe Le Goff. PRB 03-50E. Ottawa: Library of Parliament, Parliamentary information Research Service, Jan. 2004. 18 p.
Immigration — Introduction Immigration — Bibliographies Immigration — Finding & Evaluating Immigration — Primary Sources
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Introduction   Starting   Clarifying   Bibliographies   Finding & Evaluating
Primary Sources   Special Topics   Citing Sources   Ask Your Librarian!   Detailed Table of Contents

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