More than Just a Building: The Mythology of Mount Allison and its Evolving Architectural History (1)
by Victoria Lamb
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When Dr. Marie Hammond Callaghan informed me that she was organizing a conference discussing women’s history and archival research at Mount Allison University, I thought it would be an appropriate venue to discuss some aspects of my Bachelors of Arts, History Honours Thesis exploring the evolving Architectural history and mythology of Mount Allison. I focussed on three buildings, built between 1910 and 1946, which represented the three Mount Allison institutions in the first half of the 20th century: the Ladies’ College, the Wesleyan Academy for Boys, and the University. Hart Hall, Palmer Hall, and Trueman House were all built as the primary residences for each of these three institutions respectfully. My thesis explored the politics that dictated the use of each building, and how these political and external forces affected the student cultures created within the walls of these beautiful Gothic-Tudor buildings. It is next to impossible to condense one hundred pages of architectural, political, and social history into a manageable presentation for such a venue, but for the sake of brevity, this paper will narrow its focus to examine the internal created cultures of these residences during the 20th century and their effect on women at Mount Allison.
The Ladies College – Hart Hall “The Continuing Saga”
The doors of Hart Hall were opened to students in September of 1910. The impressive building boasted 50 dormitory rooms for students, a gymnasium on the first floor, an apartment for the Academy Principal, and several classrooms. The social atmosphere in Hart Hall during the 1920s and 1930s is difficult to determine due to conflicting accounts. In a diary left behind by Victoria Burrill Ross, wife of the Ladies’ College Principal Reverend William Charles Ross, Victoria makes several entries discussing the mixing of Ladies’ College students and University boys. In 1926 dancing was not permitted by the University, but Principal Ross enjoyed dancing and allowed it within Hart Hall. On October 28th of that year, Mount Allison hosted UNB for a football game, which UNB won with a score of 6-5. (2)
In Mrs. Ross’s own words;
"Our team, indeed the entire student body of the University, felt deflated when they were refused the use of the gym, in which to entertain the visiting team tonight. A committee waited on Billee [Principal Ross] to see if we would be more gracious. We were to our sorrow. It was decided to more or less repeat our welcome reception, with sketches and skits in Beethoven Hall and receptions rooms, Common Room and our quarters open for the milling throng of our girls and all University boys." (3)
Photograph of Hart Hall. 1 photograph : bxw. Mount Allison Archives, Picture Collection, 2007.07/176.
Mrs. Ross goes on to explain that one of the UNB boys closed the damper on the main fireplace causing smoke to enter the Hall, an event which brought the party to an abrupt end. This sounds like an exciting time to live in Hart Hall, with liberal-minded Principal Ross open to the wants and needs of his pupils, but every coin has two faces. Donald Wells MacLauchlan describes another side to the Hart Hall/Ladies’ College experience. He was a University boy dating a Ladies’ College girl named Jean and was frequently smuggled into Hart Hall for visits: “In my student days the Ladies’ College girls were quite inaccessible to visit, but I had a friend in the person of Principal Ross’s secretary.” (4) During one of these encounters, which took place in the backroom of the Principal’s office, the young couple heard a person placing a key in the lock. Jean hid while Donald quickly ran to the door and made up the excuse that he wanted to talk to Mr. Ross about training in the Ladies’ College swimming pool – allowing Jean to escape to her room unnoticed. MacLauchlan explains that the repercussions of the discovery of their meetings would have meant “serious trouble” (5) for a Ladies’ College girl. Incidentally, the two were later married.
Only those who lived in Hart Hall during this time can judge whether Mrs. Ross’s journal or MacLauchlan’s account is closer to the truth. What can be discovered in looking at relations between the Mount Allison Boys Academy, Ladies’ College, and University, is the advantages it created for female students. The three bodies of Mount Allison formed a physical triangle, with the Boy’s Academy standing on the north side of campus, where Campbell Hall now sits, the Ladies’ College in Allison Hall, the Music Conservatory and Hart Hall, on the south side, and the first University building standing in the centre, approximately where the Avard-Dixon Building stands today. Since Mount Allison began with educating high school-aged children and later expanded into a university, the flow of matriculated students to the post-secondary level happened with much greater ease than at other institutions without such affiliations. It was this linked structure of the institution which made it conducive for female advancement within the university, not merely the progressive thinking by the mid-Victorian university leadership. But ‘Grace Annie Lockhart’ has emerged as a banner of progressivism at Mount Allison in the years since.
The University – Trueman House “Boys will be boys”
December 1941 was like any other holiday season at the university. Students were preparing for exams and their long-awaited Christmas break, but, in the early hours of December 16th, the men's residence became a lethal towering inferno. According to Reid:
"The fire had started at about 1:15 am in the basement and had spread rapidly up the main stairwell despite the strenuous efforts with hoses and chemical fire extinguishers of the residence dean, C.A. Baxter and several of the residents." (6)
It was war time and building materials were costly and difficult to procure. It was not until January of 1946 that Trueman House opened its doors to the flood of veteran students returning from the Second World War. Since its construction, Trueman House has seen almost 50 years of University men. Its residents became a sort-of “brotherhood of the Truemanites,” an unofficial fraternity of nearly 200 men every year who developed the reputation of partying hard and having the most house spirit on campus. This relaxed but spirited environment was established early. For example, in 1948, A.H. Grainger donated the money for the first billiard table to be put in the Trueman House lounge, and there has been a pool table there ever since. (7) The Truemanites also developed their own jargon. For instance, each wing was given a different name: the first floor wings would be known as First East and First West with Tait standing in between; the second floor would consist of Second East, Second Centre and Second West; while the third floor would be called Top East, Top Centre, and Top West. The east end of the basement held the Trueman Lounge, and the west end of the basement was a much smaller wing, only holding seven rooms and a dozen students, which was nicknamed “The Dungeon.” What is interesting about the all-male environment is that it allowed men to express their most basic instincts. After speaking to several alumni, the best description that can be offered is that of an army camp with all the horse play, practical jokes, and lewd behaviour that a group of men in close quarters can produce. One resident, who had been in Trueman his full stay at Mount Allison from 1974-1977, was a monitor on Second West in his last year. This wing was known as the Wild Wild West, and he described one memory as an example of his experience:
"One evening I walked up the stairs and saw all my boys, all 20 or so of them in nothing but hockey helmets and the floor was covered with a couple of inches of soap and water. They were having a slip-n-slide contest. I thought to myself, ‘Okay, I have two options: I could walk onto the floor and break up what is obviously a whole lot of fun, or I can just leave them to it.' I left. ...I won ‘Monitor of The Year' that year." (8)
When later asked about any water damage, the alumnus simply stated: “She was built solid, nothing could hurt that house.” But, indeed, forty years of such abuse did hurt it. The fixed furniture built into every room is original and bears the scars of many years; there is graffiti in every drawer and on every desk top. One look at the interior of Trueman House today from an objective stance reveals an extremely run-down and dilapidated building. But, of the alumni interviewed, each one said that such a family atmosphere, steeped in tradition, could not be cultivated in a shiny new building.
Photograph of Trueman House. 1 photograph : bxw. Mount Allison Archives, Picture Collection, 2007.07/174.
Whether the traditions were intentionally created or not is seemingly unimportant. In Trueman house, there is an underlying assumption that since the house is old, any traditions must be old as well. The “Trueman Boys” created many traditions in their fifty years but, like everything else, this would eventually come to an end. In 1992, Charlie and Chris Hunter, Dean of Students and Registrar respectively, became the residence dons of Trueman House. Charlie was an alumnus who had spent his full time at Mount Allison in Trueman House, and he had also been a monitor during the 1970s. When he came to the house in the 1990s, though, he realized that the atmosphere had changed from what he remembered, and not for the better. The current Truemanites had developed a culture of extreme sexism, (9) including the belief that any women who came into the house were only looking for one thing: sex. Their cheers were also demeaning to women and sexually explicit. Hunter described the Trueman house of the early 1990s as a place were men were not developing into well-rounded individuals, which is what living in residence is all about. According to Hunter, the atmosphere of ignorance was stifling the men’s personal development. As a result, the decision was made that Trueman House would become co-ed in the 1994-95 school year. He explains that there was not one single incident that brought the administration to this decision, but many small ones that, eventually, “broke the camel’s back” and forced the decision to adopt a policy of co-education. Charlie was an alumnus, he was part of the Trueman tradition, but, nevertheless, he felt no guilt about enforcing the decision; Trueman could not continue in its present state and its environment was not beneficial to the men in the house.
A group of Trueman Boys, led by the House Executive, (10) were opposed to the co-ed change. Trueman was their male sanctuary, their brotherhood, and introducing women to this place would kill the spirit of the house. They camped out on the lawn for several days in sub-zero temperatures to protest the decision, but it was a fight that could not be won. When asked about this protest, Hunter explained that they were a vocal few who felt that they needed to make some sort of protest but had no chance of being successful. The Trueman Boys soon realized that they were fighting a losing battle and mourned the death of their Trueman. The 1995 Allisonian had a full page devoted to Trueman House, showing the last pictures of the all-male residence. The page included a number of quotes and statements that were indicative of the residents’ feelings on the matter. One picture was of the house front with a banner hanging from one of the windows saying “Where is my home?” (11) The page included a quote from Led Zeppelin: “What is and what should never be.” The message from the executive was full of fraternal imagery, such as “Truemanites feel a strong bond of brotherhood,” and, “We suppose it is analogous to a father whose family name is never passed on because he never has a son.” Although this may seem a little dramatic, it must be understood that the tight-knit comradery of any residence is conducive to the development of strong emotional connections to both the place and the people in it in an extremely short period of time.
Interviews were conducted in the spring of 1995 for any male wishing to live in Trueman House the following September. A co-ed monitor staff was selected and, for the first time, the Assistant Don, the student chief of staff, was a woman. The first year of Trueman as a co-ed residence was a challenging one, particularly since the Hunters, the executive, and the monitor staff needed to create a new tradition for Trueman. Along with a new logo, a new flag and new cheers, they also created awards such as “The Golden T” which was given to the Truemanite who had contributed the most to house and campus life. The staff of 1995 were creating a culture that would become a tradition; the Truemanites of 2005 simply assume that these emblems have been in use for decades and the majority were taken aback to find out that Trueman wasn’t always co-ed, or that in fact this was only the tenth year of its current usage.
A new culture was being created, but is it a culture that G.J. Trueman would have been proud of? Trueman House has developed a reputation among the student body as the largest party house on campus. When asked what he thought of Trueman being labelled the Party House, Hunter retorted: “I believe there are other houses on campus who have more of a claim to that title than Trueman. In Trueman, they do party hard, but they work hard too.” (12) This impression was also shared by the recent alumni interviewed, who, on the whole, kept using the same few words when asked to describe Trueman: a home, a family, a supportive environment, a whole lot of fun, and a drinkfest! Like any university residence, it is, and has been, many things to many people, and any generalizations of the whole should be made cautiously and conscientiously. Reviewing the interviews of all Truemanites, past and present, one statement can unify them all: they all agree that Trueman is a spirited house.
The Boys Academy – Palmer Hall “A Bastion of Decay”
Built in 1934, the fourth Academy building was used to house the students of the Wesleyan Academy for Boys until its closure in 1955. After a few idle years, the building was refurbished, renamed Palmer Hall (in memory of James Marshall Palmer, Academy Principal from 1894-1930), and converted to house University women. The 1950s and 1960s would be a time of exponential residential growth on Mount Allison University’s campus. This period gave birth to Windsor Hall, a 220-person female residence that stood at the east end of Palmer Hall; Hunton, Bennett, Bigelow, Thornton, and Edwards Houses sprung up on the men’s side of campus to help Trueman House accommodate the growing male student body. In 1967, after the closure of Hart Hall as a University women’s residence, Palmer Hall stood as the oldest operating student residence on Mount Allison’s campus. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, Mount Allison made a concerted effort to increase the percentage of students they could house in residence. This decision was made because residences were generally profitable ventures and, by becoming a primarily residential university, Mount Allison University could point to its high level of student involvement and busy campus life to entice prospective students. The 1959 President’s Report boasted:
"with the addition this year of three new residences for men and the Academy for women Mount Allison has a greater percentage of her student body in residence than any other [Canadian] University of a thousand students and over...Residential life should be a very important phase of University life." (13)
In 1946, the University, Boy’s Academy, and Ladies’ College together only required four separate university-built residences (assuming that Hart and Allison Hall be considered separate, although they were linked). During the 1950s and 1960s, the number of University residences jumped from four to ten. This expansion was necessary to accommodate the growing student body of the 1950s and 1960s but, practical reasons aside, these additions had significant social ramifications. In the 1920s and 1930s, all the men who lived on campus lived in one residence. This meant that they were, by and large, a unified group. The one aspect of their culture which allowed for sub-groups was that each and every student could be identified by their graduating year. Looking through Allisonias and Argosys of this period, one finds all student names accompanied by their class year. During this period, for instance, a student would be identified as “Victoria Lamb (‘05).” The “us versus them” dichotomy of created cultures is well-documented by this descriptor, and in the early part of the 20th century, students at Mount Allison University formed their socially exclusive groups based on the number after their name. In the 1950s and 1960s, this social dichotomy changed. The expansion of residences now allowed students to choose where they wished to live. Their choice would, to some degree, indicate their personality and personal preferences. As houses developed reputations, students no longer labelled themselves by their graduating class, but by the residence in which they had chosen to reside. A female student could be a ‘Harper Hog’, a ‘Windsor Wimp’, or a ‘Palmer Princess’, to name a few. These may be examples of horrible female stereotypes, but, after speaking to alumnae from this period, it is clear that these titles were never taken entirely seriously and as they were given to each house, held little literal significance. The conceptions of the ‘Palmer Princess’ or ‘Palmer Playmates’, though, were images created and perpetuated for external consumption.
Photograph of Palmer Hall. 1 photograph : bxw. Mount Allison Archives, Picture Collection, 2007.07/175.
In speaking to alumnae from this time period, it is clear that internally Palmer Hall’s atmosphere was close-knit and supportive. During the 1970s, Sheila Blagrave was a monitor in Palmer Hall while Chris Parker was a student on her floor. Interviewing them separately, they both agreed that Palmer was a fun-filled and encouraging place to live. During this period all first year girls lived in Windsor Hall. At the end of their first year, they were given the choice of moving into Harper Hall or Palmer Hall. Parker chose Palmer because, as a Fine Arts student, it was an aesthetically beautiful building and the rooms were often very large. (14) During one of her years in the residence, she was able to draw into one of the end suites which had two separate rooms and a private bathroom. “I used the front room as a studio and the back room as a bedroom. It was great.” Blagrave describes Palmer Hall as a place where women could just “be themselves… you could walk around in a housecoat and curlers – no one would care.” (15) For these alumnae and others, Palmer represented a personal haven and a bastion of femininity where they felt nurtured and supported. Like any house that accommodated 80 women, there was some bickering and quibbling but very few alumnae focused on this small aspect of the culture during interviews on the subject. Palmer Hall during the 1960s and 1970s was a pleasant residence to call home – even if it was starting to look a little run-down.
Palmer Hall, as a building, received very little attention after the 1959 refurbishing. The only renovations and repairs reported after this happened in the summers of 1966 (16) and 1967. (17) Nowhere in the Board of Regents meeting minutes or the President’s Report does it discuss what type of renovations took place, but one can assume by the drapes and carpets still in use during the 2002-2003 school year, that these renovations were primarily aesthetic. Whatever type of renovations were conducted over these two summers, it is clear that Palmer Hall, before its demolition in 2003, had been neglected for quite some time. One of the main reasons for the building’s eventual destruction was a row of pine trees that lined the front of the building and were not part of the original architectural design or landscaping. The 1939 Allisonian displayed several different views of the fourth Academy building and none of them show the pines. Regardless of when they appeared, the trees were extremely tall and well developed before they were cut down in 2003. The pines flanked each of the three front doors and rose taller than the three-storey building. As beautiful as the trees were, they contributed greatly to Palmer Hall’s ultimate demise. Their root systems were extensive and, by 2003, it was clear that they had shifted the house off its foundation. The shift caused serious structural problems for the building; there were rooms in the basement that had large pieces of foundation stone protruding through their outer walls and, by the late 1990s, the entire rear external wall of the building began to fall off under the pressure. The entire wall was removed and metal rebar put in place to reinforce the building’s structural integrity; the sandstone was numbered and removed for the repair, and each stone was put back in its original place when completed. Despite the careful work performed during this repair, it was analogous to wrapping a tenser bandage around the stump of a dismembered limb: much more would have to be done in order to prolong the life of the building.
In the 1990’s, campus culture would change once again. This time, rather than changing ideas of campus-wide student identification, the new cultural dichotomy would be centered solely on Palmer Hall. Throughout the 1990s, residences slowly began to convert to co-ed status. Some residences, such as Windsor Hall, chose to do so willingly, conforming to the growing student interest in integrated dormitories. Other residences, such as Trueman House, were forced to introduce women so that the created culture within the residence would be less sexist and would aid the male students’ development. The administration wanted to maintain an all-female residence option for the comfort of socially conservative parents and students. As the smallest female residence, Palmer Hall was the obvious choice.
It is interesting to note that today, although there are no gender-segregated residences, the Mount Allison University campus still maintains the language of this bygone era. On the south side of campus all the residences that were originally built for men were named ‘Houses’ – Trueman House, Bennett House, and Hunton House, for example – while, on the north side of campus, female residences were ‘Halls’. This gendered distinction should be recognized, and it should be noted that these labels have nothing to do with the size or style of the dormitory. Trueman House, for instance, was twice as large as Palmer Hall and shared the same stately sandstone facade and Gothic-Tudor architectural design. The difference seems not to lie in the physical style of the building but in the gender of its occupants: women lived in elegant and demure Halls, whereas men lived in sturdy Houses.
By 1999, as a gender-segregated university residence, Palmer Hall stood as a relic of times past. Accordingly, the culture on campus shifted to give the only single-gendered residence a new definition. Palmer Hall would now take on all of the negative stereotypes associated with femininity. As one Palmer Girl describes:
"When someone asked you what house you were from, you hesitated to answer because the reaction you got would always be negative. Oh... you're from Palmer. You were never sure which definition they had bought into. Whether they were now classing you as a nun, bitch, whore, or lesbian. It was so frustrating." (18)
It only took one man who had been denied by a Palmer girl, or one who had not, for a negative reputation to be legitimized in the court of popular opinion. Each residence still had its unique character, but when involved in a campus event that included students from a variety of houses, the point on which the group often unified was that whatever house they were from, at least they weren't from Palmer. In the early years of the inter-house rivalries of the 1960s and 1970s, the “us versus them” relationship was between every house; no residence was singled out. In the late 1990s, as the only residence of distinctive make-up, the label of ‘other' was intensely focussed on a very small minority of the student body: the approximately 80 girls who lived in Palmer Hall.
These prejudices were understandably disheartening to the women who lived in Palmer. Of the entire student body, only 5-10 each year chose an all-girls house for their first year on campus. The majority of the women within Palmer had been placed there by random selection or because they wanted to have a larger room than in the other standardized dormitories. The broad, sweeping generalizations about Palmer as the “virgin vault”, or “lesbian lair”, were essentially incorrect. Speaking to several alumnae from this period it is widely held that within the house the culture created was an extremely supportive one. Palmer Girls had become accustomed to attacks from the rest of campus, and largely found the house a haven from these prejudices. As one frequent male visitor commented: “this is the only house on campus that always smells like a combination of Herbal Essences [shampoo] and cookies.” (19) The Palmer Girls would have baking parties, “Secret Angels Week” at Christmas, and many other uniquely female events. They would also try to host events that were typical of the other residences, such as an annual house party – which would always be unsuccessful because the student body refused to believe that fun could be had in such a place. The culture created in Palmer was not diminished by the negative attitudes that surrounded it on campus; the culture of solidarity was in fact reinforced. This is what compelled Palmer Girls to stay in the house despite stereotypes and prejudices. Palmer Hall consistently had one of the highest rates of student retention among campus residences during the 1990s. The culture in the house was also strengthened by the age of the building itself. Because the house had seen many different uses, not a single room was identical; there were rooms with prayer alters; rooms with two doors into the hallway; rooms with double oak doors; even Principal Flemington’s office was converted into a bedroom which retained the original built-in bookcases and cupboards. In the common room, collages of each year of Palmer Girls since the early 1970s surrounded the room, as well as the original plaque dedicating the Academy building to James Marshall Palmer. As a building, dilapidated as it was in its later years, Palmer Hall was nothing if not unique in its internal structure. It was a building with character steeped in tradition, a fact that Palmer Girls held with great pride.
One aspect of the internal culture of Palmer Hall were the awards created by the residents. One such award was given to those women who chose to stay in the house for their full four years at “Mount A”. These women were appropriately called “Golden Girls” and in Palmer’s final year, there were three women who received this award. One of these women was Natalie Osika, a Psychology Major and socially conscious student who had been involved in many aspects of campus life. As a child, her family had moved several times and Natalie was devastated when she was told that Palmer Hall, her most stable home and the place in which she had lived for the longest period of her life, was to be demolished.
In October of 2002, the residents of Palmer Hall were told by the University administration that the house would be demolished in May of that academic year. The reasons were legitimate: Palmer Hall was not structurally sound and could not remain in its current state. In a meeting with the residents of Palmer, Facilities Management, represented by Jeff Lamb, explained that the idea of keeping the facade of the house was explored but deemed not feasible. If they had tried to use the existing external walls as a facade for a new building, they would still be faced with the same structural difficulties. Furthermore, bringing the existing building up to current fire and accessibility codes would cost approximately $50,000 per room and reduce the capacity to 50 rooms. The fourth Academy building had been built to house high-school-aged boys, and in 2002, its hallways were nearly a foot too narrow to be considered safe. Rather than having two banks of rooms on either side of a hallway, using the existing structure in a renovation would necessitate removing one bank of rooms from each floor. It was completely impractical.
The Palmer Girls experienced the range of emotions associated with such an announcement. Morgan Rice, a second year Biology Major and Palmer monitor, remarked: “I feel like I’ve just found out that a good friend is terminally ill and the doctors have given her eight months to live.” (20) Some girls were angry that the house had not been maintained to avoid this scenario, but the majority realized that anger would not change the outcome of the decision. Professor Thaddeus Holownia approached the House Executive with the proposal of creating a photography exhibit showing the last residents of Palmer Hall in their distinctive rooms. Organized by the House President, 48 Palmer Girls, as well as the house custodian, Lorraine Lewis, who spent 18 years of her Mount Allison career as the custodian for Palmer Hall, posed for Holownia. When demolition was announced, no one was more affected than Lorraine, who would have to now “bump” a co-worker with less seniority in another house. The house banquet in Palmer’s final year included a funeral ceremony with the tri-corner folding of the house flag, a processional of 80 women dressed in black that went from Palmer Hall to Jennings Dining Hall, and the playing of taps on a lone trumpet. The entire ceremony was done half-facetiously but, for those girls who were strongly tied to the house, it gave them some semblance of closure. Palmer Hall, the fourth and final Academy building, was demolished by wrecking ball and bulldozer during late May and early June of 2003.
Whether it was the Ladies’ College girls with their circular staircase and drawing room, the ‘Truemanites’ with their slip n’ slide, or Palmer Hall with its “Secret Angels Week”, the buildings of Hart Hall, Trueman House, and Palmer Hall have left an indelible mark on the lives of many who count themselves among the alumni of Mount Allison. These histories may not be the backroom dealings of the Board of Regents, or the political history of a particular University President’s administration, but they are significant histories nonetheless. The stories of these three buildings explain the history of three Mount Allison institutions in the 20th century from the perspective of both students and staff, through the spaces they occupied and the cultures that they created.
1. This essay is based on an excerpt from: Victoria Lamb, “More than Just a Building: The mythology of Mount Allison and its evolving architectural history” (B.A. Thesis, Mount Allison University, 2005).
2. ‘Football’ in the 1920s included any sort of field game involving ball – both soccer and rugby as well.
3. Victoria Burrill Ross, Moments Make a Year, Sackville, (N.B.: Sackville Tribune, 1958) 11.
4. Donald Wells MacLauchlan, Mount Allison So Fair, (Sackville, N.B.: Mount Allison University ,1980) 73.
6. John G. Reid, Mount Allison University: A History to 1963, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984).
7. Mount Allison Archives (MAA), Minutes of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents, October 19th 1948.
8. Interview with anonymous alumnus, Sackville, N.B., 10 February, 2005.
9. Interview with Charlie Hunter, Sackville, N.B., February 5th , 2005.
10. House Executive are four upperclassmen students who are elected to represent, as well as organize activities and events for, the members of the House. They include: President, Secretary / Treasurer and two Social Chairs.
11. Allisonian Yearbook, 1995.
12. Interview with Charlie Hunter, , Sackville, N.B., February 5th, 2005
13. MAA, Dr. William Thomas Ross Flemington, President’s Report, October 1959.
14. Interview with Chris Parker, Sackville, N.B., March , 2004
15. Interview with Sheila Blagrave, Sackville N.B., March 2004.
16. MAA, Dr. Laurence Harold Cragg, President’s Report, 1965-66, 76.
17. MAA, Dr. Laurence Harold Cragg, President’s Report, 1965-66, 76.
18. Interview with anonymous Palmer alumna, Sackville N.B., March 2005.
19. Interview with Doug Drover, Sackville N.B., April 2005.
20. Interview with Morgan Rice, Palmer Alumna, Sackville, N.B., March , 2004.
Allisonian Yearbook, 1995
Burrill Ross, Victoria, Moments Make a Year, Sackville, N.B.: Sackville Tribune, 1958.
Interview with Anonymous Alumni, Sackville, N.B., 10 February, 2005.
Interview with Anonymous Palmer alumna, Sackville N.B., March 2005.
Interview with Charlie Hunter, Sackville, N.B., February 5th , 2005
Interview with Chris Parker, Palmer Alumna, Sackville, N.B., March , 2004.
Interview with Morgan Rice, Palmer Alumna, Sackville, N.B., March , 2004.
Interview with Sheila Blagrave, Sackville N.B., March 2004.
Interview with Doug Drover, Sackville N.B., April 2005.
MtAUA, Minutes of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents, October 19th 1948.
MtAUA, Dr. Laurence Harold Cragg, President's Report, 1965-66, 76.
MtAUA, Dr. Laurence Harold Cragg, President's Report, 1966-67, 75.
Reid, John G. Mount Allison University: A History to 1963. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984.
MtAUA, Ross Flemington, Dr. William Thomas. President's Report, October 1959.
Wells MacLauchlan, Donald, Mount Allison So Fair, Sackville, N.B.: Mount Allison University, 1980."