

9. Quick review: levels of abstraction 
Our aim in using pitchclass set analysis is to explore the pitch structure
of (usually) atonal music. Music analysis always invokes abstract concepts
that help us to classify and make sense of our concrete musical experience.
As you have discovered, pc set analysis deals in a few levels of abstraction,
some of which we have been routinely using on tonal music  perhaps without
considering them consciously. We'll quickly review these levels.
 The pitch material of music consists of pitches. These pitches
are separated in pitchspace by pitch intervals: ordered
(directed) ones between melodic pitches, unordered ones between
harmonic pitches.
 We classify the pitches we hear into pitch classes (pcs) using
axioms of octave and enharmonic equivalence. There are 12 pitch
classes.
 We then consider groups or sets of pitch classes, abstracted
from the musical segments we analyze, for example, sets [1,2,3,6,7],
[2,3,4,7,8], and [10,11,2,3,4]. We usually use the normal form
names for these sets. We are mostly interested in sets of between three
and nine pcs.
 Using axioms of transpositional and inversional set equivalence,
we can classify sets into pc set classes. We usually name set
classes by citing either their prime forms, for example, (01256),
or their Forte setclass names, for example, 56.
 With the growing abstraction of pitchrelated concepts, concepts of
interval also grow abstract. We measure the distance between pitch classes
 pitchclass intervals  using modulo 12
arithmetic. As with tonal pc intervals, interval pairs which add
together to make an octave are considered "inverses" of each other.
We classify such pairs as equivalent, grouping them into interval
classes (ics). Pc set classes are usually characterized by unique
ic contents (conveniently written as ic vectors), though
some pairs of classes ("Zrelated" classes) happen to share their
ic profile.
Each of these levels of abstraction and of classification tells us something
about the relatedness of concrete pitches and groups of pitches to each
other.
We can say that the process of analyzing an atonal work is a threestage
one, though in real analysis we likely interweave these stages:
 segmenting the music
 gathering and classifying the pc sets that we find in the segments,
and
 interpretating the set data we've gathered.
The last, interpretive, stage is, of course, the real point of any analysis.
The first stage lays the crucial (if at times problematical) groundwork
for the analysis. The second stage is the one involving the basic mechanics
of pc set analysis, mechanics we have been practising. Happily, many of
these sometimes tedious mechanics can be computerized, leaving us more
time to spend on interpretation. This guide is accompanied, for instance,
by an excellent Webbased pcset
calculator, written by David Walters. (See the list of Other
Sources for some other online set calculators.) As with arithmetic
and the handheld calculator, however, we must learn the mechanics and
their rationale before we can sense how the data we gather might be interpreted.

Page last modified 3 October
2001 / GRT 

