Mount Allison University Campus

Academic Calendar 2019-2020

Table of Contents

Geography and Environment

The Geography and Environment Department offers three degree programs: a B.A. in Geography, a B.A. in Environmental Studies, and a B.Sc. in Environmental Science, as well as a B.A. or B.Sc. Minor in Geographic Information Systems.

The Geography B.A. program is designed for students interested in the study of social sciences at various spatial and temporal scales and leads to the completion of a Minor, Major, or Honours. It is about the study of place and involves understanding the processes that have acted together to shape the complex "place" structures that exist in our world and on our landscape. Such study requires an understanding of the principles of ecological and physical systems; of the cultural, social, economic and political forces acting on those systems; and of the management, planning or scientific tools necessary to meet environmental challenges and opportunities.

The Environmental Studies B.A. program is designed for students interested in the human dimensions of environmental change and problem-solving, including environmental behaviour, management, planning, and policy. It operates as an inter-disciplinary, cross-departmental degree program and leads to the completion of a Minor, Major, or Honours. Studies in this stream address such topics as environmental policy and economics, natural resource management, and environmental ethics.

The Environmental Science B.Sc. program is an interdisciplinary, science-intensive program, requiring comprehensive study of the sciences and mathematics leading to a Major or Honours. Courses in this program provide the strong but diverse scientific foundation required to understand environmental issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective.

The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) B.A. or B.Sc. Minor involves the application of computer models to represent spatial features on the earth's surface. The two core GIS courses, combined with courses in Computer Science, provide a valuable foundation in applied spatial analysis.

Interdisciplinary B.Sc. Programs

MINOR in Environmental Science is 24 credits earned as follows:

3from GENS 1401
3from BIOL 1001, CHEM 1001, PHYS 1041, 1051
3from GENS 2431, BIOL 2701, MATH 2311
9from BIOL 2101, GENS 2411, 2421, 2441
6from GENS at the 3/4000 level; or GENV 3201

MAJOR in Environmental Science is 69 credits earned as follows:

6from GENS 1401, 2411, 2421
3from GENV 1201, 2001, 2101, ANTH 2501, PHIL 1651
9from BIOL 1001, 1501, 2101
6from BIOC 1001, CHEM 1001
3from PHYS 1041, 1051
3from MATH 1111, 1151
3from BIOL 2701, MATH 2311, GENS 2431
36 chosen from one of the following Optional Streams listed below.
Aquatic Environments
3from MATH 1121, COMP 1631
6from BIOL 2201, 2301, 2401
9GENS 3461, 3471, 4401
18from GENS 3401, 3411, 3421, 3431, 3451, 3991, 4421, 4701, BIOL 3111, 3201, 3351, 3361, 3371, 3781*, 3811, 4111*, 4411, 4711, 4371*
Environmental Chemistry
3from MATH 1121
6from CHEM 1021, BIOC 2001
6from CHEM 2111, 2411
6from BIOC 3001, 3031, 3501, 3711, CHEM 3421*
15from BIOC 3501, 3711, 3991, 4151, 4201, CHEM 4521*, GENS 3461, 3471, 4421
Environmental Management
3from MATH 1121, COMP 1631
3from GENS 2441
6from BIOL 2301, 2401
9from GENS 3421, GENS 3401, BIOL 3811
15from GENS 3431, 3451, 3461, 3471, 3991, 4421, 4701, BIOL 3301*, 3401*, 3351, 3371, 3451*, 3501*, 3511*, 3651*, 4111*, 4411, 4711
Environmental Modelling
9from MATH 1121, COMP 1631, PHYS 1551
6from GENS 2441, 4721, MATH 2111
9from MATH 3151, 3411, BIOL 4711
12from COMP 3411, 3531, BIOL 3811, 4111, GENS 3401, 3421, 3451, 3461, 3471, 4421, 4701, MATH 3311*, 3321*, 3531, 3991, PHYS 3751
Environmental Monitoring
3from MATH 1121, COMP 1631
9from BIOL 2301, CHEM 1021, 2511
3from GENS 2441
9from GENS 3471, 4401, BIOL 3811
12from GENS 3401*, 3421*, 3431, 3451, 3461, 4421, 4701, BIOL 3111, 3301, 3401, 3451, 3501*, 4111, 4711

Note: Additional 3/4000 level science courses are needed to fulfill Calendar Regulation 11.3.5.

Note: Recommended courses are indicated with an asterisk.

Note: The following courses, while not counting towards the Major, are suggested due to their relevance to the Environmental Management Optional Stream: GENV 3101, 3201

Note: The following course, while not counting towards the Major, is suggested due to its relevance to the Environmental Monitoring Optional Stream: GENV 3201

HONOURS in Environmental Science is 78 credits as follows:

69credits as in the Major, plus:
3from GENS 4421
6from GENS 4990

Note: Students who have completed any one of the former Environmental Science course listings or Physical Geography courses will have credits applied to their Geography and Environment B.Sc. program.

Note: All GENS B.Sc. courses are considered Science credits for the completion of degree requirements.

Interdisciplinary B.A. Programs

MINOR in Environmental Studies is 24 credits earned as follows:

6from GENV 1201, GENS 1401
3from GENV 2001
9from ECON 1001 and 1011, 3801
6from GENV 3101, 3111, 3201, 3531, 4101, 4111, 4121, 4201, PHIL 3721, RELG 3981, ANTH 4531

MAJOR in Environmental Studies is 66 credits earned as follows:

9from GENS 1401, GENV 1201, 2001
3from BIOL 1001, CHEM 1001, PHYS 1041, PHYS 1051
9from ECON 1001, 1011, 3801
6from GENS 2411, 2421, 2441, 3411, 3451, 3461
6from GENV 3701 or GENS 3401, GENS 2431 or MATH 2311
15from GENV 3101, 3111, 3201, 3211, 3531, 4101, 4111, 4121, 4201, 4211
18 from Optional Streams. Choose 9 credits of complementary courses from each of two of the following Optional Streams listed below.
Environment and Society:
ANTH 1011, 2501, 3031, 3541, 4531
GENV 2101, 3101, 3111, 3801, 4101, 4121
SOCI 1001, 4511
Environmental Policy and Economics:
ECON 2301, 2311, 3501, 3601, 3821
GENV 2201, 2221, 3101, 3201, 3211, 3531, 4111, 4201, 4211
INLR 2301, 3201, 3301, 3311, 4101, 4301
POLS 2101, 3141, 4121, 4141
Environmental History and Philosophy:
ENGL 3951
HIST 3401, 4321
PHIL 1651, 2701, 3511, 3721
RELG 2411, 3981
Ecology and Environment:
GENS 2411, 2421, 2441, 3411, 3421, 3451, 3461, 4421, 4721
BIOL 2101, 3201, 3301, 3361, 3711, 3781, 3801, 3811, 3911, 4101, 4111

Note: At least 9 of 18 elective stream credits must be at the 3/4000 level.

HONOURS in Environmental Studies is 78 credits earned as follows:

66credits as in the Major, plus:
6 from GENV 4990
6 from courses at the 3000/4000 level in one of the elective streams chosen for the Major

Disciplinary B.A. Programs

MINOR in Geography is 24 credits earned as follows:

6from GENV 1201, GENS 1401
18from Geography and Environment including 6 from the 3/4000 level, chosen in consultation with the Program Advisor

MAJOR in Geography is 60 credits earned as follows:

6from GENS 1401, 2421
3from GENV 1201
9from GENV 2101, 2201, 2221, 2811
9from GENS 2431, 2441, 3401 or GENV 3701
18from Geography and Environment at the 3/4000 level, including 6 credits from the 4000 level
15credits from complementary courses chosen in consultation with the Program Advisor

HONOURS in Geography is 72 credits earned as follows:

60credits as in the Major, plus:
6from GENV 4990
6from Geography and Environment at the 3/4000 level, including 3 from the 4000 level, chosen in consultation with the Program Advisor

Interdisciplinary B.A. and B.Sc. Programs

B.A. or B.Sc. MINOR in Geographic Information Systems is 24 credits earned as follows:

6from COMP 1631, 1731
3from GENS 1401, GENV 1201
3from GENS 2431, MATH 2311
6from GENS 2441, GENS 4721
3from COMP 2611, 3851
3from GENS 3401, GENV 3701

GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT COURSES

Note:  The listing of a course in the Calendar is not a guarantee that the course is offered every year.

Note:  Students must obtain a grade of at least C- in all courses used to fulfill prerequisite requirements. Otherwise, written permission of the appropriate Department Head or Program Co-ordinator must be obtained.

Note:  The following courses can be used for the distribution requirement for the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees:

GENS 1401; GENV 1201, 2001

GENS COURSES

The Physical Environment

This course introduces the general principles of Physical Geography and the Environment, emphasizing the physical world at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. This course introduces the four fundamental spheres of Physical Geography: the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. It examines basic processes in the physical environment such as the seasons, layers of the atmosphere, the earth's energy budget and interactions with atmospheric processes. It also investigates weather and its interplay within the hydrological cycle, the fundamentals of climatology, the three basic rock types, tectonic activity and weathering of the earth's surface. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 1.5 Hours) (Distribution: Natural Science-c) (Exclusion: GEOG 1401)

Special Topic in Geography and Environment

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for GENS 1991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Geomorphology

Prereq: GENS 1401; or permission of the Department
This course is an introduction to geomorphology, the science that explores the processes that shape the Earth's surface. Its first half deals with the large-scale relief features of the Earth and how they are shaped by the processes of weathering, erosion, and sedimentary deposition. The second half introduces landforms/landscapes that exist in glacial, fluvial, coastal, and desert environments. It also explores the geomorphic agents which control the formation and evolution of these landforms/landscapes. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GEOS 2401; GEOG 2411)

Weather and Climate

Prereq: GENS 1401; or permission of the Department
This course highlights elements of weather and climate including the composition and thermal structure of the atmosphere, radiation and energy balances, global circulation, air masses, fronts and atmospheric disturbances, and climates of the world. It places special emphasis on recent climatic changes in the environment. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GEOG 2421)

Data Analysis

Prereq: 3 credits from GENV 1201, GENS 1401; or permission of the Department
This course develops basic skills in data collection, analysis, and presentation. It introduces basic statistical and hypothesis testing procedures, along with relevant software. (Format: Lecture/Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GEOG 2711)

Geographic Information Systems

Prereq: Second-year standing; 3 credits from GENS 2431, MATH 2311; or permission of the Department
This course surveys several aspects of traditional cartography, examines one or more Geographic Information Systems, and explores the role of maps in conveying geographic information. (Format: Lecture/Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GEOG 2721; GEOG 3711)

Special Topic in Geography and Environment

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for GENS 2991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Research Methods in Environmental Science

Prereq: Third-year standing; GENS 2431; permission of the Department
This course begins with a critical examination of current research techniques. Students then design,implement, complete, and evaluate a field research project in environmental science. [Note 1: This course requires attendance at an off-campus field camp and students will be liable for some field trip costs.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Multi-Day Field Camp) (Exclusion: GEOG 3401)

Coastal Geomorphology

Prereq: GENS 2431; GENS 2411; or permission of the Department
This course introduces coastal geomorphology by emphasizing current theories of coastal processes set in a context of natural systems. Topics include waves and currents, sediment transport, evolution of coastal features, and coastal management. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 3411; GEOS 3111)

Biogeography

Prereq: GENS 2421; 3 credits from GENS 2431, BIOL 2701; or permission of the Department
This course explores the links between the geomorphology and climatology of a region and the plant-animal environments through a biogeographical approach to ecological studies. It focuses on the geography of plants including environmental controls of plant distributions and the functional and historical aspects of plant communities. [Note 1: This course is cross-listed with BIOL 3421 and may therefore count as three credits in either discipline.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 3421)

Fundy's Megatidal Biogeography Science

Prereq: GENS 1401
This course explores the physical evolution of the Bay of Fundy's landscape through geologic time. It examines the development of terrestrial, intertidal, and marine ecosystems, and considers the anthropogenic influences that have transformed this dynamic environment. It pays close attention to the interaction between the climate, geology, tides, rivers, forests, and biodiversity, through direct observation and measurement in the field, the use of media such as video and photography, and in-class lectures. (Format: Field Course) (Exclusion: GENS 3991-Fundy Mega-Tidal Biogeography)

Earth System Science

Prereq: GENS 1401; GENS 2421; 6 credits from BIOL 1001, BIOL 1501, BIOC 1001, CHEM 1001, PHYS 1041, PHYS 1051; or permission of the Department
This course integrates atmospheric, oceanographic, geological and biological concepts with a historical perspective to introduce the major processes that have shaped Earth's environment. The course examines climatic processes on geological time scales, the evolution of organisms, the cycling of elements, and the feedbacks between these processes.(Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: ENVS 3001)

Oceanography

Prereq: GENS 1401; GENS 2421; 6 credits from BIOL 1001, BIOL 1501, BIOC 1001, CHEM 1001, PHYS 1041, PHYS 1051; or permission of the Department
This course introduces the interdisciplinary field of Oceanography, covering many of the fundamental biological, chemical, geological, and physical processes in the ocean. Topics include the physical and chemical properties of seawater, oceanic box models and climate models, controls on the vertical and horizontal distribution of elements in the sea, controls on primary production, and the climate record in ocean sediments. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours)

Limnology

Prereq: 3 credits from GENS 2431, BIOL 2701; 9 credits from BIOL 1001, BIOL 2101, BIOC 1001, CHEM 1001, PHYS 1041, PHYS 1051; or permission of Department
This course examines the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. It emphasizes the physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur within lakes and, to a lesser extent, river and wetland environments. The course also covers the diversity of, and interactions between, major biological communities in lakes and highlights environmental stressors that threaten freshwaters. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GENS 3991 Stressors on Freshwater Systems; GENS 3991 Limnology)

Special Topic in Geography and Environment

Prereq: Third-year standing; GENS 1401; or permission of the Department
This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for GENS 3991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Biomonitoring Methods

Prereq: GENS 3421; GENS 3471; 3 credits from GENS 2431, BIOL 2701; or permission of the Department
This course focuses on the application of modern survey and paleoenvironmental methods in the assessment of environmental change and investigates bioindicator responses across time or space. The course also introduces aspects of design, analysis, and interpretation relevant to environmental science and biomonitoring programs. Topics of investigation may include the effects of climate change or shifts in water quality, and bioindicator distributions across ecological gradients. (Format: Laboratory 3 Hours) [Note 1: This course may require attendance at an off-campus field location outside of regular course hours.]

Seminar in Environmental Science

Prereq: Registration in the final year of a Major or Honours in Environmental Science
This course examines current issues in environmental science. Students prepare case studies of specific problem areas in environmental science and present these in a seminar format. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours)(Exclusion: ENVS 4901)

Advanced Field Course

Prereq: 3 credits from GENV 3701, GENS 3401; permission of the Department
This is an extended field course to be completed outside the September-May academic year in which students complete a supervised original research project at an off-campus location. [Note 1: This course is cross-listed as GENV 4701 and may therefore count as 3 credits in either discipline.](Format: Field Course)(Exclusion: GEOG 4701)

Advanced Geographic Information Systems

Prereq: GENS 2431; GENS 2441; or permission of the Department
This course builds on the key concepts from GENS 2441 by introducing programming for automation and exploring advanced methods for producing and visualizing surfaces and data. It increases students' proficiency in the application of GIS and prepares them to conduct sophisticated spatial analyses. (Format: Lecture/Laboratory 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GENS 4951 Advanced Geographic Information Systems)

Independent Study in Geography and Environment

This course permits senior students, under the direction of faculty members, to pursue their interest in areas not covered, or not covered in depth, by other courses through a program of independent study. [Note 1: Permission of the Department/Program Advisor. Students must obtain consent of an instructor who is willing to be a supervisor and must register for the course prior to the last day for change of registration in the term during which the course is being taken. Note 2: A program on Independent Study cannot duplicate subject matter covered through regular course offerings. Note 3: Students may register for GENS 4950/51 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Independent Study)

Independent Study in Geography and Environment

This course permits senior students, under the direction of faculty members, to pursue their interest in areas not covered, or not covered in depth, by other courses through a program of independent study. [Note 1: Permission of the Department/Program Advisor. Students must obtain consent of an instructor who is willing to be a supervisor and must register for the course prior to the last day for change of registration in the term during which the course is being taken. Note 2: A program on Independent Study cannot duplicate subject matter covered through regular course offerings. Note 3: Students may register for GENS 4950/51 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Independent Study)

Honours Thesis

This course comprises independent research and study under the direction of a supervisor approved by the department. (Format: Independent Study/Thesis) [Note 1: Permission of the Department is required.]

Special Topic in Geography and Environment

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for GENS 4991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

GENV COURSES

The Human Environment

This course introduces the study of the human population and the spatial dimensions of environmental change. It examines how people interact with the environment and the core forces which shape these interactions, including population, culture, technology, and geography. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Distribution: Social World-c) (Exclusion: GEOG 1201)

Special Topic in Geography and Environment

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for GENV 1991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Contemporary Environmental Studies

This course reviews how different disciplines are brought to bear on the study of environmental issues. Some of the topics considered in this survey include the role of environmental philosophy and activism, interactions between science and environmental politics, environmental or ecological economics, and sustainable development. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Distribution: Social World-c) (Exclusion: ENST 1001)

Natural Resources Management

This course introduces key concepts and issues in natural resources management. It examines resource sectors of importance to the Canadian economy, including forestry, fisheries, wildlife, energy, mining, water, and agriculture. The course emphasizes understanding the varied influences that environmental, socio-economic, and political factors have on patterns of resource utilization and resource management decision-making. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 2101)

Geography of Economic Activity

This course examines the changing spatial organization of the world industrial map since 1945 by comparing British and North American de-industrialization with the rapid growth of some sectors of newly industrialized countries, including the effects of new production technology, changes in industrial organization and transnational corporations and new regional trading blocs on those changing patterns are discussed. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GEOG 2201)

The Developing World

This course surveys the changing geography of the developing world. It examines the decline in traditional land systems and resource use, surveys current economic development strategies, and reviews the role of international aid and non-governmental organizations in these strategies. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GEOG 2201)

Urban Social Geography

This course introduces the central concepts in urban geography by considering the historical and contemporary role of cities in the global landscape. It also investigates the shifting attitudes towards city life and city dwellers from the Industrial Revolution to the present day with an emphasis on social issues in the post-industrial city. Throughout this examination it emphasizes the place and development of Canadian cities. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GENV 3811)

Special Topic in Geography and Environment

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for GENV 2991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Environment and Development

Prereq: 3 credits from GENV 2001, 2101; GENV 2221; or permission of the Department
This course examines current thinking on the relationship between environment and development. Topics may include: sustainable development, rural land use change, tropical deforestation and forest management, indigenous environmental knowledge, and community-based conservation. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 3101)

Gender, Race, and Environmental Justice

Prereq: 3 credits from GENV 1201, 2001; or permission of the Department
This course examines the ways in which environmental inequalities such as exposure to pollution, health risks, and lack of access to clean air, water, and food reflect, sustain, and reproduce gendered and racial inequalities. Focusing primarily on Canada, this course investigates the ways that Feminist, Indigenous, and Anti-racist Movements inform the concept of environmental justice and contemporary environmental movements. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GENV 3991 Gender, Race, and Environmental Justice)

Canadian Environmental Policy

Prereq: GENV 2001; 3 credits from GENV 2221, ECON 1001; or permission of the Department
This course studies the politics and policies of environmental problem-solving within the Canadian context. It examines key features of the Canadian political system - its parlimentary structure, robust federalism among others - in light of the nation's evolving environmental policy. It pays particular attention to the role of stakeholder dynamics and alternative regulatory tools and strategies (e.g., pollution taxes, best available technology, etc.). (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 3201)

Transportation Geography

Prereq: GENV 1201; GENV 2201; or permission of the Department
This course investigates the impact of changing transport and communication technologies on spatial organization. Topics may include: the transportation-infrastructure problem and proposed solutions from a geographic perspective; an analysis of the land use-transportation system in North American cities; its social and environmental impacts; the analysis of travel behaviour; and the geographical implications of various policy and planning alternatives. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 3211)

Geography of Japan

Prereq: Third-year standing; 3 credits from GENV 1201, HIST 1611; or permission of the Department
This course examines Japan's geography since 1860, emphasizing the importance of international trade and new technologies and their roles in forming new geographic relationships for Japan with other parts of East Asia and with the West. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 3321)

Rural and Small Town Canada

Prereq: GENV 1201; 3 credits from GENV 2101, 2201; or permission of the Department
This course examines land use patterns as well as the environmental, social, economic and political structures of Canadian rural areas and small towns. It uses an integrated approach to resolving rural and small town development issues. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 3511)

The Planning Process

Prereq: GENV 1201; 3 credits from GENV 2101, 2201; or permission of the Department
This course examines community responses to the necessity and challenge of growth. Discussion focuses on the contributions of planning to the process of development and to the outcomes and opportunities which parallel this process. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 3531)

Research Methods in Human Geography And Environment

Prereq: Third-year standing; GENS 2431; permission of the Department
This course presents a critical examination of current research techniques. Students design, implement, complete and evaluate a field research project in Human Geography and Environment. [Note 1: This course requires attendance at an off-campus field camp and students must cover some field trip costs.](Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Multi-Day Field Camp)(Exclusion: GEOG 3701)

Place Matters

Prereq: Third-year standing; GENV 1201; or permission of the Department
This course addresses the importance of 'place' in the development of human interactions with the environment. It examines the principles of place geography, including ecological and bioregional perspectives on the Sackville and Tantramar region; place-conscious learning and sustainability; place-making and local geographies; and the local community as a place for experiential learning. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GENV 2991 Place Matters; GENV 4951 Place Geography)

Geography of Global Cities

Prereq: GENV 2811; 3 credits from GENV 2201, 2221; or permission of Department
This course explores the rise in importance of global cities in the era of economic globalization. As command centres of the global economy, global cities serve as hubs of technology, knowledge, finance, culture, immigration, and tourism. It examines the differing roles of cities in the global north and global south with particular attention to issues of employment, environment, and inequality. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GENV 4821 if taken in Winter 2011)

Special Topic in Geography and Environment

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for GENV 3991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Seminar in Environmental Issues

Prereq: GENV 1201; GENV 2001; GENS 1401; or permission of the Department
This course examines the current state of scientific knowledge related to various contemporary environmental issues and the public policy implications of these issues. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 4101)

International Environmental Affairs

Prereq: GENV 3201; or permission of the Department
This course explores international environmental problems and their solutions. It examines climate change, biodiversity, conservation, international marine pollution, and the relationship between trade and environment, among other topics, giving particular consideration to the roles of science, civil society, and international governance. (Format: Lecture/Seminar 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 4101)

Education for Sustainable Development

Prereq: Third-year standing; GENV 1201; GENV 2001; or permission of the Department
This course explores geographic and environmental education encompassing formal, informal, and traditional ideas and practices and the ways in which these may be integrated in planning for a sustainable society. It takes a critical approach to environmental education with an emphasis on developing and practicing sustainable perspectives on how people learn about, think about, and manage their affairs within the natural environment. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GENV 4951 Environmental Education; GENV 4951 Geographical and Environmental Education; GENV 4951 Geographical Education; GENV 4951 Sustainable Education)

Canadian Environmental Planning and Management

Prereq: GENV 3201; or permission of the Department
This course examines the theory, methods, regulatory frameworks and social implications of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), providing a basis for deciding whether and how to proceed with a proposed resource development project so as to prevent or minimize environmental degradation. Students consider the overall Canadian environmental planning and management process with an emphasis on recent Canadian case studies. (Format: Lecture/Seminar 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 4101)

Resource Communities and the Multinational Corporation

Prereq: GENV 2101; GENV 2201; or permission of the Department
This course explores the economic geography of resource industries with a focus on the role that large corporations play in shaping the fortunes of communities where they operate. Its conceptual themes include staples theory, industrial restructuring, the 'greening' (or greenwashing) of economic activity, and the use and abuse of environmental science by corporate interests. These issues are grounded in examinations of regional resource sectors, including forestry and fishing, as well as international case studies. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours)

Seminar in Community Planning Research

Prereq: GENS 2431; GENV 3531; or permission of the Department
This course applies community planning theory and techniques to an actual case developed in concert with a local community. Students clarify client objectives, develop a research and analysis program, conduct fieldwork, analyze data, prepare recommendations, and present results to the client. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 4521)

Advanced Field Course

Prereq: 3 credits from GENV 3701, GENS 3401; permission of the Department
This is an extended field course to be completed outside the September-May academic year in which students complete a supervised original research project at an off-campus location. [Note 1: This course is cross-listed as GENS 4701 and may therefore count as 3 credits in either discipline.](Format: Field Course)(Exclusion: GEOG 4701)

Gender, Culture and the City

Prereq: GENV 2811; or permission of the Department
This course examines the relationship between socially constructed gender relations and the nature and form of urban areas. Students consider how social and cultural categories and historical processes shape the production of urban space, and how we in turn are shaped by it. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: GEOG 4811)

Seminar in Urban Issues

Prereq: GENV 2201; GENV 2811; GENV3211; or permission of the Department
This course explores a selected contemporary urban issue focusing in any given year on topics such as the political geography of the Canadian urban movement, the urban dynamics of key world cities,cities in the developing world, and cities and the 'new' economy. [Note 1: Students may register for GENV 4821 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Seminar 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GEOG 4821)

Independent Study in Geography and Environment

This course permits senior students, under the direction of faculty members, to pursue their interest in areas not covered, or not covered in depth, by other courses through a program of independent study. [Note 1: Permission of the Department/Program Advisor. Students must obtain consent of an instructor who is willing to be a supervisor and must register for the course prior to the last day for change of registration in the term during which the course is being taken. Note 2: A program on Independent Study cannot duplicate subject matter covered through regular course offerings. Note 3: Students may register for GENV 4950/51 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Independent Study)

Independent Study in Geography and Environment

This course permits senior students, under the direction of faculty members, to pursue their interest in areas not covered, or not covered in depth, by other courses through a program of independent study. [Note 1: Permission of the Department/Program Advisor. Students must obtain consent of an instructor who is willing to be a supervisor and must register for the course prior to the last day for change of registration in the term during which the course is being taken. Note 2: A program on Independent Study cannot duplicate subject matter covered through regular course offerings. Note 3: Students may register for GENV 4950/51 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Independent Study)

Honours Thesis

This course comprises independent research and study under the direction of a supervisor approved by the Department. (Format: Independent Study/Thesis) [Note 1: Permission of the Department is required.]

Special Topic in Geography and Environment

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for GENV 4991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Special Topic in Geography and Environment

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for GENV 4991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)