Mount Allison University Campus

Academic Calendar 2020-2021

Table of Contents

Biology

Biology is the scientific study of living things: their form, their function, their origin and their behaviour. The study of Biology can be an important part of a liberal education, for to understand it well requires knowledge of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and natural history; to describe it well requires a command of language and ability to present observations visually; to appreciate it requires an awareness of human nature, both past and present, and the interplay between humans and other living organisms and their common environment. For three thousand years this discipline has developed to describe living things in aid of the arts of healing, of gardening and of living. Today it abounds with exciting new knowledge and discoveries, so that wise people still read about it with amazement or pursue it with delight.

In this Department three things are attempted: to give all students an understanding of the scope, techniques and general principles which underpin Biology; to encourage independent study and self-learning where possible; to give those students who are seriously interested in advanced studies an opportunity of exploring the areas of special interest to faculty who are primarily concerned with the fields of ecology and physiology.

Students intending to take a Major or Minor or Honours in Biology should consult the Department website and/or a Program Advisor before completing registration.

Disciplinary B.Sc. Programs

MINOR in Biology is 24 credits earned as follows:

6from BIOL 1001, 1501
3from BIOC 1001
9from BIOL 2101, 2201, 2301, 2401, 2701, 2811
6from Biology at the 3/4000 level. Up to 3 credits of this requirement may be obtained from the following courses: BIOC 3041, BIOC 3501, BIOC 3521, PSYC 3101, PSYC 3211, PSYC 3141, PSYC 4101, PSYC 4611, GENS 3431, GENS 3461, GENS 3881, GENS 4421, GENS 4881

MAJOR in Biology is 60 credits earned as follows:

6from BIOL 1001, 1501
3from PHYS 1051, 1041
3from MATH 1111 or 1151
3from MATH 1121, 1251, 1311, 2211, 2221, or COMP 1631
3from CHEM 1001
3from BIOC 1001
9from BIOL 2101, 2701, 2811
9from BIOL 2201, 2301, 2401, BIOC 2001
21additional credits from Biology at the 3/4000 level. Up to 6 credits of this requirement may be obtained from the following courses: BIOC 3041, BIOC 3501, BIOC 3521, PSYC 3101, PSYC 3141, PSYC 3211, PSYC 4101, PSYC 4611, GENS 3431, GENS 3461, GENS 3881, GENS 4421, GENS 4881

Note: BIOC 2001 is a prerequisite for several 3/4000 Biology courses.

Note: Additional 3/4000 level courses are needed to fulfill Calendar Regulation 11.3.5

HONOURS in Biology is 75 credits earned as follows:

60as in the Major, plus:
9from BIOL 4903, 4990
6from Biology at the 3/4000 level, chosen in consultation with the Program Advisor

Note: The thesis required will involve laboratory or field investigation, and unless the candidate shows satisfactory ability to carry on independent work, honours will not be recommended.

BIOLOGY COURSES

Note:  The listing of a course in the Calendar is not a guarantee that the course is offered every year.

Note:  Students must obtain a grade of at least C- in all courses used to fulfill prerequisite requirements. Otherwise, written permission of the appropriate Department Head or Program Co-ordinator must be obtained.

Foundations of Biology

This course introduces the fundamentals of organismal biology: the scientific method, principles of evolution including Darwin's theory of natural selection, adaptations in organismal form and function, biodiversity, the interactions of organisms with their environment, and the practices of scientific communication. [Note 1: This course is designed for science majors. Students who intend to continue to study in Biology should note the need to complete BIOC 1001 as a prerequisite for BIOL 1501.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 1001 previously offered with a different title)

Human Biology

This course applies biological principles to practical human concerns. It introduces the development, structure and function of the human body, and mechanisms involved in degenerative infectious diseases, discusses human reproduction and genetics, examines the impact of evolutionary theory on our understanding of the human species, considers the interdependence between natural ecosystems and human activities, and looks at threats to the environment through pollution and overpopulation. [Note 1: This course is restricted to non-science majors. Science majors require the instructor's permission to enrol.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)

Cell Biology

Prereq: BIOC 1001; or permission of the Department
This course introduces the structure, organization and functions of the cell, which is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living organisms. It places particular emphasis on eukaryotic cells. Topics include: membranes and organelles, communication within and between cells, membrane transport, the cell cycle, meiosis and mitosis. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours)

Special Topic in Biology

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by the Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for BIOL 1991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Introduction to Ecology

Prereq: BIOL 1001; BIOL 1501 strongly recommended; or permission of the Department
This course introduces current concepts of population and community ecology using local ecosystems and organisms, principally aquatic insects, whenever possible. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 2101 previously offered with a different title)

Form and Function: Microorganisms

Prereq: 3 credits from BIOL 1501, BIOC 2001; or permission of the Department
This course surveys the evolutionary and functional diversity of the Archaea, Bacteria, and selected eukaryotic microbes, examining the cellular structures and metabolic processes characteristic of each group, and how these characteristics allow humans to control and use microbial growth. The course also examines how genomic sequencing is altering our views of microbial evolution and ecology. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 3101)

Form and Function: Plants

Prereq: BIOL 1001; BIOL 1501 strongly recommended; or permission of the Department
This course introduces the structure and function of plants with an emphasis on vascular plants. Topics include comparative anatomy, development and functional adaptations to the environment, and how genomic sequencing is altering our views of plant evolution and ecology. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 2301 previously offered with a different title)

Form and Function: Animals

Prereq: BIOL 1001; BIOL 1501; or permission of the Department
This course introduces students to the structure and function of major groups of invertebrate and vertebrate animals on a comparative basis by observation of both preserved and living material. Topics include comparative anatomy and phylogeny, and the evolution and function of locomotory, digestive, excretory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive systems.(Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 2401 previously offered with a different title)

Introductory Design & Statistical Analysis

Prereq: 3 credits from BIOL 1001, 1501; 3 credits from MATH 1111, 1151; or permission of the Department
This course introduces data analysis, the principles of experimental design and the formulating and testing of hypotheses. It describes graphical and statistical (t-test, chi-square test, ANOVA) analyses of laboratory and field collected data, and discusses their appropriate use in Biology. [Note 1: Data management and statistical analyses uses Excel and R.](Format: Lecture 3 Hours and Tutorial 1.5 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 3701; any version of BIOL 2701 previously offered with a different title)

Genetics and Evolution

Prereq: BIOL 1001; BIOL 1501; or permission of the Department
This course examines evolution by natural selection as the driving force behind the diversity of life, examining genetic and evolutionary processes from the level of cells (gene transcription, recombination, mutation) to populations (selection, migration, genetic drift) to species (speciation, extinction, constraint). It examines modern theories of biological evolution, building from Mendelian genetics to genomics, and presents evolutionary biology as an experimental science, emphasizing the methods used to test evolutionary hypotheses in the wild and in the lab. It uses viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes of various levels of complexity as examples both in lectures and laboratories. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: 6 credits from BIOL 2601, 2801)

Special Topic in Biology

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by the Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for BIOL 2991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Palaeontology

Prereq: BIOL 2301; BIOL 2401; or permission of the Department
This course provides an overview of the major fossil plant and animal taxa in the context of the history of macroscopic and microscopic forms of life on Earth. It discusses morphology and anatomy of organisms in relation to accompanying changes in marine and terrestrial environments and when appropriate it emphasizes diagnostic features of the organisms used as time (biostratigraphy) and/or environmental (paleoecology) indicators. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GENS 3991 Introduction to Palaeontology)

Molecular Analyses

Prereq: BIOC 2001; or permission of the Department
This course focuses on experiential analysis and computer modeling of key concepts of the molecular basis of biology, including nucleic acid structure, synthesis, and replication through template-directed polymerizations. The course builds on these key concepts to explore gene structure, expression, and engineering, leading to the wide-ranging applications of molecular biology to biology, medicine, and diagnostics. [Note 1: This course is cross-listed with BIOC 3031 and may therefore count as 3 credits in either discipline. Note 2: This course is required for students completing a Major or Honours in Biochemistry. It is open to students from other programs on a space available basis, provided that the student has met the prerequisite requirement.] (Format: Integrated Lecture and Laboratory, 6 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOC 3021; BIOC 3531)

Molecular Immunology

Prereq: BIOC 2001; or permission of the Department
This course explains the core molecular structures of the immune system: antibodies and their interactions with antigens. It places these molecular interactions in the context of the cells and tissues of the immune system and the signaling cascades that regulate immune responses. The course concludes with topics in immunology and applications of immunochemistry. [Note 1: This course is cross-listed with BIOC 3051 and may therefore count as three credits in either discipline.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)(Exclusion: BIOC 4011)

Environmental Microbiology

Prereq: 3 credits from BIOL 2201, BIOC 2001; or permission of the Department
This course covers the ecophysiology of microorganisms. The course surveys the key functional microbial groups which mediate major steps in the biogeochemical cycles, their ecological requirements and factors limiting their growth and activity. This leads to discussion of the roles of microorganisms in current issues in biology, industry and environmental science. (Format: Integrated Lecture and Laboratory 6 Hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 3111 previously offered with a different title)

Animal Physiology; Adaptation and Environment

Prereq: BIOL 2401; BIOL 2701; or permission of the Department
This course focuses on the physiological processes underpinning a monumental step in the evolution of the vertebrates, the transition from water to land. It examines the respiratory, circulatory, acid-base and osmoregulatory adaptations seen in fish to mammals and studies the integration of animal physiology with the environment by investigating metabolism and temperature. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours)

Human Physiology

Prereq: Third-year standing; BIOL 1501; or permission of the Department
This course provides a comprehensive study of the physiology of the human body. It examines the function of the nervous, muscular, sensory, endocrine, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. [Note: Laboratory exercises with students as participants in experiments complement the course material and advance students' knowledge of important physiological processes.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusions: Any version of BIOL 3201 offered prior to 2015-2016; Any version of BIOL 3211 previously offered with a different title)

Human Anatomy

Prereq: 3 credits from BIOL 2401, 3211; or permission of the Department
This course examines the structural organization of the human body, including the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. It investigates these systems in the context of human health and disease. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion BIOL 3991 Human Anatomy)

Physiological Plant Ecology

Prereq: BIOL 2101; BIOL 2301; or permission of the Department
This course examines the ways by which plants respond to their environments. Topics include a discussion of transpiration and heat transfer, photosynthesis in nature, vernalization, photoperiodism and response to stresses such as drought, temperature, salinity and pollutants. (Format: Lecture and Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 4301)

Marine Botany

Prereq: BIOL 2301; or permission of the Department
A lecture, laboratory, and field course summarizing recent advances in our understanding of macroscopic plant growth in the sea. This progress has been based upon studies involving morphology, development, physiology, and ecology. The following topics will be emphasized: the sea as an environment for plants to grow, production of marine plants, morphogenesis and geographic distribution of marine plants, and use of marine plants. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours)

Coastal Marine Biology

Prereq: BIOL 2101; 2401; 3 credits from BIOL 2701, GENS 2431, PSYC 2011, or permission of the Department
This course investigates the ecology of estuarine, intertidal, and subtidal ecosystems with a particular focus on ecosystems within Atlantic Canada. Fundamental aspects of marine science will be covered to highlight the physical, geological, and chemical processes that shape coastal ecosystems. Building from these fundamentals, students will explore the community ecology, food webs, and biodiversity of the major types of coastal ecosystems. [Note: The course includes a required field trip to the Huntsman Marine Sciences Centre in St. Andrews, N.B. Students are expected to contribute to their accommodation costs.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Field Trip)

Principles of Aquaculture

Prereq: BIOL 2401; or permission of the Department
This course introduces the history, practice, and future of aquaculture with particular emphasis on development of finfish aquaculture in Atlantic Canada. Topics include biology of growth, culture of live feed, hatchery techniques, health, nutrition, engineering, economics, and public policy.(Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 3991 Principles of Aquaculture)

Animal Behaviour

Prereq: Prereq: BIOL 2101; BIOL 2401; 3 credits from BIOL 2701, GENS 2431, PSYC 2011; or permission of the Department
A course which will present the development, physiology, ecology and evolution of animal behaviour. Topics to be discussed will include basic concepts of behavioural organization; physiology of behaviour, learning and memory phenomena; behaviour of communication; reproductive behaviour and mating systems; spatial distribution patterns and social systems; migrations and orientation mechanisms; feeding and anti-predator behaviours. Field excursions and laboratory exercises will permit students to observe and to quantify different behaviours in a variety of animal species. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours)

Biogeography

Prereq: GENS 2421; GENS 2431; or permission of the Department
This course explores the links between the geomorphology and climatology of a region and the plant-animal environments through a biogeographical approach to ecological studies. It focuses on the geography of plants including environmental controls of plant distributions and the functional and historical aspects of plant communities. [Note 1: This course is cross-listed with GENS 3421 and may therefore count as three credits in either discipline.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GEOG 3421)

Entomology

Prereq: BIOL 2401; or permission of the Department
Insects surpass all other organisms in their diversity and numbers, comprising over two thirds of the earth's known animals. This course will introduce students to this class of organisms by covering the following six areas: structure, function classification and phylogeny, behaviour and ecology. Throughout the course, evolutionary forces influencing the animals and systems involved will be stressed. Discussions will emphasize the use of the comparative methods to determine what these forces might be. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory/Field Trip 3 Hours)

Limnology

Prereq: 3 credits from GENS 2431, BIOL 2701; 9 credits from BIOL 1001, BIOL 2101, BIOC 1001, CHEM 1001, PHYS 1041, PHYS 1051; or permission of Department
This course examines the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. It emphasizes the physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur within lakes and, to a lesser extent, river and wetland environments. The course also covers the diversity of, and interactions between, major biological communities in lakes, and it highlights environmental stressors that threaten freshwaters. [Note 1: This course is cross-listed with GENS 3471 and may therefore count as three credits in either discipline.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion: GENS 3991 Stressors on Freshwater Systems; GENS 3991 Limnology)

Native Flora (vascular Plants)

Prereq: BIOL 2301; or permission of the Department
This course presents principles of plant systematics and taxonomy, and the key characters of important families of vascular plants in the New Brunswick flora, enabling students to recognize plants belonging to these families in the field. Students will practice using dichotomous keys, preparing and handling herbarium specimens, and conveying of biological information through botanical sketches and floral diagrams. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory/Field Trip 3 Hours)

Integrative Invertebrate Biology

Prereq: BIOL 2401; or permission of the Department
This course draws from many disciplines within the biological sciences to explore the importance of invertebrates at both the ecosystem and global scale. Aspects of evolutionary biology, behavioural ecology, ecosystem ecology, and biogeochemistry are integrated to study invertebrate diversity and roles in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 4511)

Ecological Genetics

Prereq: BIOL 2811; or 6 credits from BIOL 2601, 2801; or permission of the Department
This course investigates theoretical and observed changes in ecologically significant traits. It explores the connections between ecological properties of populations and evolutionary forces at work through the study of population structure, mathematical treatment of models, quantitative traits, and natural selection on phenotypic traits. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)

Applied Genetics

Prereq: Prereq: BIOL-2811, or permission of the department
This course explores how genetic technologies can be used to solve current problems in biology, ranging from ecology to medicine. It teaches skills in current genetic technologies including some or all of: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA extraction, gel electrophoresis, cytology, in situ hybridization, immunocytology, data mining, bioinformatics, conventional light microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and related techniques. (Format: Integrated Lecture and Laboratory, 4 Hours)

Developmental Biology

Prereq: BIOL 2811; or permission of the Department
The course provides a foundation to the rapidly expanding field of Developmental Biology, which draws upon the disciplines of Cell Biology, Genetics, and Molecular Biology. This course focuses on the structural changes exhibited during the development, differentiation, and growth of organisms. It examines gametogenesis, fertilization, and embryogensis in a variety of model organisms. Laboratory exercises reinforce the concepts and stages of development.(Format: Integrated Lecture and Laboratory 3 hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 3311; any version of BIOL 3631 previously offered with a different title)

Introduction to Ornithology

Prereq: BIOL 2101; BIOL 2401; or permission of the Department
An introduction to the study of birds through lectures, laboratories and field trips. All of the bird families represented in the Maritime region will be discussed, with special emphasis on anatomy, structural adaptations, behaviour and physiology. The species composing the bird communities of the Sackville area will be examined during field trips. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory/Field Trip 3 Hours)

Human Analysis

Prereq: BIOL 2811; or permission of the Department
This course explores how the genetic program of cells interacts with the external and organismal environment to produce the phenotype of the organism. It explores our current understanding of how interactions between genes, gene identification, gene-environment interactions, gene regulation, and epigenetics allow normal development. Human, animal, and plant diseases provide examples of how these processes work and the consequences of disruption. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 3661 previously offered with a different title)

Biochemical Ecology

Prereq: BIOL 2101; BIOC 2001; or permission of the Biology Department
This course deals with the biochemistry of interactions between animals, plants and microorganisms that occur in the natural environment. It places strong emphasis on the role of so-called "secondary metabolites" or "natural products" such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, etc., in the insect-plant, vertebrate-plant, plant-plant and vertebrate-vertebrate relationships. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours) [Note 1: This course is cross-listed with BIOC 3711 and may therefore count as three credits in either discipline.]

Comparative Chordate Anatomy

Prereq: BIOL 2401; or permission of the Department
A lecture and laboratory course in which the structure, function and diversity of vertebrate animals will be examined and compared. It will discuss successive modifications of structural and functional systems found in vertebrates, and speculate on the survival value of these systems and on their relationships to contemporary environments. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours)

Tropical Marine Biology

Prereq: BIOL 2101; BIOL 2401; or permission of the Department
This course introduces the fauna, flora and complex ecological and behavioural interactions of organisms in tropical habitats and allows independent research in such habitats. It includes on-site exploration of coral reefs, reef lagoons, mangrove swamps and rocky shores. [Note 1: The field component of this course usually takes place at a location in the Caribbean. Enrollment is limited and students should be aware of the additional costs of travel and participation fees.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Field Trip; (Exclusion: BIOL 4701)

Theoretical and Evolutionary Ecology

Prereq: Third-year standing; BIOL 2101; BIOL 2701; or permission of the Department
This course evaluates theories of population and evolutionary ecology that were introduced in BIOL 2101. Using a suite of mathematical and simulation techniques, it explores the effects of specific parameters on the predicted outcomes of evolutionary models and ecological models such as population growth, competition, predation, and community. The course assesses the limitations, application, and interpretation of outcomes for each examined model. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)

Conservation Biology

Prereq: BIOL 2101; or permission of the Department
The field of conservation biology applies to the principles of ecology, biogeography, and population genetics to the mitigation of human impact and the maintenance of global biodiversity. The course will familiarize the student with the concepts and principles of conservation biology and will encourage active debate about threats to ecological integrity and the ways scientists attempt to cope with such threats. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)

Plants and Human Society

Prereq: Third-year standing; 3 credits from BIOL; or permission of the Department
This course investigates the interactions between plants and human societies from the introduction of agriculture until the present. It includes the consideration of the evolution of vascular plants, especially those important to agriculture and forestry. It emphasizes the origins of agriculture on various continents and discusses economic botany and the present day commercial uses of plants. It also considers interrelations between plants and societies in dietary, cultural and religious connotations. Finally, the course considers world food shortages, either present or potential, and possible ways to alleviate these. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)

Plant Physiology

Prereq: 3 credits from BIOL 2301, BIOC 2001; or permission of the Department
This course presents a general introduction to the physiology of plants. Topics discussed include photosynthesis, from the level of light entrapment to that of the fixation of carbon dioxide; translocation of sugars and the storage of energy rich food reserves; transpiration and water loss from leaves; water uptake and transport within the plant; plant defense from perception of biotic or abiotic stress to the plant response; and mineral nutrition including uptake, transport, distribution, and use of nutrients. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours)

Special Topic in Biology

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by the Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for BIOL 3991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Behavioural Ecology

Prereq: 3 credits from BIOL 2801, 2811; BIOL 3401; or permission of the Department
This course explores the relationships between animal behaviour and ecology, emphasizing the behavioural strategies which animals have evolved to enhance their survival and to increase their reproductive success. It discusses topics such as foraging, living in groups, resource defence, sexual selection, parental care, mating systems, altruism and communication within a neo-Darwinian framework using optimality models and game theory. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)

Field Ecology

Prereq: BIOL 2101; 3 credits from BIOL 2701, 4711; or permission of the Department
This course introduces the basic principles of field ecology research, experimental design, and data analysis It considers various techniques used in quantitative field ecology, including the design of observational and manipulative studies, and methods used to quantify abundance of plants and animals, implementing these in a wide range of environments during the field week. [Note 1: This course requires a 6-day field course component in August as well as regular class meetings through the term.] (Format: Field course, Lecture 3 Hours)

Virology

Prereq: Third-year standing; BIOL 2201; 3 credits from BIOL 2601, 2811, BIOC 3041; or permission of the Department
This course introduces the fundamental features of animal, bacterial, and plant viruses. It covers the biochemical genetic features of viral structure and replication, techniques used in studying viruses, the evolution of viruses, cell defence against viruses, the history of viruses as the causal agents of animal and plant disease, and current antiviral strategies. It also discusses the role of viruses as agents of evolutionary change, and their use in modern molecular genetics. [Note 1: This course is cross-listed with BIOC 4151 and may therefore count as three credits in either discipline.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours)

Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry of Animals

Prereq: 3 credits from BIOL 3201, BIOL 3211, BIOC 2001; or permission of the Department
This course in animal physiology examines the physiological and biochemical strategies animals use to survive in diverse, often stressful environments. Using primary literature from scientific journals, this course focuses on animal responses to environmental conditions such as hypoxia/anoxia, high and low temperatures, overwintering, altitude, environmental pollutants, osmotic stress and UV radiation. [Note 1: Weekly discussion groups on recent topical papers form a major component of this course. Note 2: This course is cross-listed with BIOC 4201 and may therefore count as three credits in either discipline.] (Format: Seminar 3 hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 4201 previously offered with a different title)

Endocrinology

Prereq: BIOL 3211; or permission of the Department
This course investigates vertebrate hormone systems and may examine some aspects of invertebrate systems. It discusses hormone synthesis, control of secretion, modes of secretion and general mechanisms of action and examines specific hormone systems such as the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, renin-angiotensin system, and pituitary-adrenal axis. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours)

Exercise Physiology

Prereq: 3 credits from BIOL 3201, BIOL 3211; or permission of the Department
This course explores the metabolic and systemic basis of exercise, the physiology of training and performance and exercise under special conditions such as environment and disease. In addition to studying these fundamentals of exercise physiology, this course delves into recent research and advancements in the field. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours)

Neurophysiology

Prereq: BIOL 3211; or permission of the Department
This course investigates advanced topics in neurophysiology including neuro- and glio-transmission, the physiology and plasticity of synapses, and neuronal circuits that underlie behaviour. It also discusses the development and pathophysiology of the nervous system. (Format: Lecture/Seminar 3 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 4991 Special Topics in Neurophysiology)

Advanced Topics in Marine Science

Prereq: Third-year standing; BIOL 2101; or permission of the Department;
This course provides the opportunity for in-depth research of selected topics from the most current and progressive areas of marine science such as advances in biological, geological, chemical and physical oceanography and methodologies such as genomic approach to assessment of oceanic biodiversity and application of remote technology in marine exploration of the deep sea. The course emphasizes specific topics of global significance such as interactions between ocean and atmosphere, integrative and sustainable aquaculture, invasive biology, and marine pollution. (Format: Lecture 3 hours) (Exclusion: Any version of BIOL 4371 previously offered with a different title)

Evolutionary Biology of Sex and Reproduction

Prereq: 3 credits from BIOL 2801, 2811; BIOL 3401; or permission of the department
This course discusses the evolution of sexuality and various reproductive patterns. Topics include what is sex, sexual and asexual reproduction, asexual reproduction and parthenogenesis, the role of sex in evolution, Muller's Ratchet vs. the Red Queen, genetic and epigenetic sex determination, sexual selection, mating strategies of males and females, role of parasites in the evolution of sex, fertilization strategies and hermaphroditism. (Format: Seminar 3 Hours)

Ecology and Biology of Fishes

Prereq: BIOL 2101; BIOL 2401; 3 credits from BIOL 2701, GENS 2431, MATH 2311, PSYC 2001; or permission of the Department
This course provides an overview of the general biology of fish-like chordates, with particular emphasis on the teleost fishes and on adaptations that have allowed fishes to become the most evolutionary successful group of vertebrates. Topics include: aspects of form and function, ecology and behaviour, and fisheries management. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 3 Hours/Field Trip 3 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 3411)

Genes, Cells, and Disease

Prereq: BIOL 3661; or permission of the Department
This course examines the genetic basis of cellular processes and organelles such as telomeres, nuclear architecture, cytoskeleton, intracellular transport, the extracellular matrix, cell cycle control, and the contribution to disease when these processes are abnormal. (Format: Lecture 3 Hours) (Exclusion: BIOL 3991 Genes, Cells, and Disease; BIOL 4991 Genes, Cells, and Disease)

Advanced Design and Statistical Analysis

Prereq: 3 credits from MATH 2311, PSYC 2011, BIOL 2701, GENS 2431; or permission of the Department
This course investigates how to design studies with clear hypotheses, select appropriate statistical methods, and carry out the analyses, applying the techniques to real data sets. It reviews a variety of statistical techniques including advanced ANOVA and regression, techniques for categorical data, resampling methods, MANOVA, and other multivariate techniques. It also considers experimental design issues such as power analysis and pseudoreplication. [Note: Throughout the course, data analyses are conducted using R.] (Format: Lecture 3 Hours, Laboratory 2 Hours)

Current Advances in Biology

Coreq: BIOL 4990
A seminar course for Honours students in Biology which will critically evaluate a wide range of topics from the current literature in all branches of biological science. Students will be expected to deliver seminars on topics outside their thesis area and present preliminary thesis results. (Format: Lecture/Seminar 3 Hours)

Independent Study in Biology

This course permits senior students, under the direction of faculty members, to pursue their interest in areas not covered, or not covered in depth, by other courses through a program of independent study. [Note 1: Permission of the Department/Program Advisor. Students must obtain consent of an instructor who is willing to be a supervisor and must register for the course prior to the last day for change of registration in the term during which the course is being taken. Note 2: A program on Independent Study cannot duplicate subject matter covered through regular course offerings. Note 3: Students may register for BIOL 4950/51 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Independent Study)

Independent Study in Biology

This course permits senior students, under the direction of faculty members, to pursue their interest in areas not covered, or not covered in depth, by other courses through a program of independent study. (Format: Independent Study) [Note 1: Permission of the Department/Program Advisor. Students must obtain consent of an instructor who is willing to be a supervisor and must register for the course prior to the last day for change of registration in the term during which the course is being taken. Note 2: A program on Independent Study cannot duplicate subject matter covered through regular course offerings. Note 3: Students may register for BIOL 4950/51 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.]

Honours Thesis

Coreq: BIOL 4903
The thesis requires a report on one or more laboratory, library or field investigations carried out by arrangement with and under the direction of an appropriate member of the staff. This course is open only to candidates for Honours in Biology in their senior year. A minimum grade of B is required in this course for successful completion of an honours degree. [Note 1: Consent of supervising staff member prior to registration and permission of the Program Advisor is required] (Format: Independent Study/Thesis)

Special Topic in Biology

This course either focuses on topics not covered by the current course offerings in a department or program or offers the opportunity to pilot a course that is being considered for inclusion in the regular program. [Note 1: Prerequisite set by the Department/Program when the topic and level are announced. Note 2: When a Department or Program intends to offer a course under this designation, it must submit course information, normally at least three months in advance, to the Dean. Note 3: Students may register for BIOL 4991 more than once, provided the subject matter differs.] (Format: Variable)

Graduate Level Topic in Biology

Prereq: Registration in the M.Sc program and permission of the Department Head and course instructor (Format: Variable)

Graduate Level Topic in Biology

Prereq: Registration in the M.Sc program and permission of the Department Head and course instructor (Format: Variable)